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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical note focuses on issues in insurance supervision and regulation on France. France has a very high level of insurance penetration, particularly for life insurance. For each insurance company, a risk assessment is undertaken on at least an annual basis and is recorded in a supervisory review process tool. French insurance companies are significant users of the Volatility Adjustment (VA), with companies representing more than 90 percent of the technical provisions in the French insurance industry using the VA. The report discusses that French authorities should advocate to the relevant EU authorities to introduce a minimum number of independent members of the Administrative Management or Supervisory Boards, at least one-third. Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel et de Résolution should review the intensity and frequency of on-site supervision and its relationship to off-site supervision. With several other meetings with insurance companies possible, some of these meetings may be close to be called as focused on-site inspections.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical note provides an update on the Australian insurance sector and an analysis of certain key aspects of the regulatory and supervisory regime. The note analyzes the practice in relation to selected Insurance Core Principles (ICPs) in the context of a wider discussion of key issues in regulation and supervision. Despite the negative impact of the low interest rate environment, the life insurance industry retains sufficient loss absorption capacity. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) has undertaken a comprehensive reform of prudential regulation while improving the consistency of the framework between life and general insurers. This focused review confirms that prudential regulation and supervision by APRA is reasonably conservative. The risk-based capital framework is reasonably conservative, which facilitates supervisory risk assessments. APRA has high technical capacity to conduct effective supervision. While there are some gaps in the regulatory regime, APRA seeks to address these through its supervisory process. The report recommends that APRA should expand and deepen its scrutiny of group activities, especially those entailing risky investments and material intragroup transactions.
Antoine Bouveret
Cyber risk has emerged as a key threat to financial stability, following recent attacks on financial institutions. This paper presents a novel documentation of cyber risk around the world for financial institutions by analyzing the different types of cyber incidents (data breaches, fraud and business disruption) and identifying patterns using a variety of datasets. The other novel contribution that is outlined is a quantitative framework to assess cyber risk for the financial sector. The framework draws on a standard VaR type framework used to assess various types of stability risk and can be easily applied at the individual country level. The framework is applied in this paper to the available cross-country data and yields illustrative aggregated losses for the financial sector in the sample across a variety of scenarios ranging from 10 to 30 percent of net income.
Sheheryar Malik and Ms. TengTeng Xu
Interconnectedness among global systemically important banks (GSIBs) and global systemically important insurers (GSIIs) has important financial stability implications. This paper examines connectedness among United States, European and Asian GSIBs and GSIIs, using publicly-available daily equity returns and intra-day volatility data from October 2007 to August 2016. Results reveal strong regional clusters of return and volatility connectedness amongst GSIBs and GSIIs. Compared to Asia, selected GSIBs and GSIIs headquartered in the United States and Europe appear to be main sources of market-based connectedness. Total system connectedness—i.e., among all GSIBs and GSIIs—tends to rise during financial stress, which is corroborated by a balance sheet oriented systemic risk measure. Lastly, the paper demonstrates significant influence of economic policy uncertainty and U.S. long-term interest rates on total connectedness among systemically important institutions, and the important role of bank profitability and asset quality in driving bank-specific return connectedness.
Emanuel Kopp, Lincoln Kaffenberger, and Christopher Wilson
Cyber-attacks on financial institutions and financial market infrastructures are becoming more common and more sophisticated. Risk awareness has been increasing, firms actively manage cyber risk and invest in cybersecurity, and to some extent transfer and pool their risks through cyber liability insurance policies. This paper considers the properties of cyber risk, discusses why the private market can fail to provide the socially optimal level of cybersecurity, and explore how systemic cyber risk interacts with other financial stability risks. Furthermore, this study examines the current regulatory frameworks and supervisory approaches, and identifies information asymmetries and other inefficiencies that hamper the detection and management of systemic cyber risk. The paper concludes discussing policy measures that can increase the resilience of the financial system to systemic cyber risk.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper provides an update on the German insurance sector and an analysis of certain key aspects of the regulatory and supervisory regime. It includes an analysis of German practice in relation to selected Insurance Core Principles in the context of a wider discussion of key issues in regulation and supervision. This technical note focuses mainly on recent developments in the sector and key vulnerabilities, including life insurance issues, those vulnerabilities associated with the continuing low interest rate environment; the preparations of the authorities and industry for the implementation of the Solvency II requirements; and the supervisory approach to large insurance groups.
Mr. Robert M Heath and Evrim Bese Goksu
The G-20 Data Gaps Initiative (DGI), which aimed at addressing the information needs that were revealed by the 2007/2008 global financial crisis, concluded its first phase and started a second phase (DGI-2) with the endorsement of G-20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in September 2015. The DGI-2 recommendations maintain the continuity of DGI-1 but reflecting the evolving policy needs focus more on datasets that support the monitoring of risks in the financial sector and the analysis of the inter-linkages across the economic and financial systems. The paper presents the DGI as an overarching initiative, bringing together various statistical frameworks for a complete picture of the economic and financial system to support the work of policy makers.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This paper discusses Poland's performance under the Flexible Credit Line Arrangement. In recent years, Poland's macroeconomic policies have focused on further strengthening fundamentals and institutional frameworks. Fiscal consolidation has led to an exit from the Excessive Deficit Procedure. Monetary policy has been eased to help lift inflation. Financial sector supervision has been strengthened with a new macroprudential framework. Reserves are broadly adequate against standard metrics. The new government has pledged to maintain prudent policies, including gradual fiscal consolidation over the medium term, and to ensure the continued stability of the banking system. In the period ahead, it will be important to identify specific growth-friendly measures to underpin the fiscal adjustment and reduce implementation risk.

Mr. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia and Mr. Lev Ratnovski
We revisit the link between bailouts and bank risk taking. The expectation of government support to failing banks creates moral hazard—increases bank risk taking. However, when a bank’s success depends on both its effort and the overall stability of the banking system, a government’s commitment to shield banks from contagion may increase their incentives to invest prudently and so reduce bank risk taking. This systemic insurance effect will be relatively more important when bailout rents are low and the risk of contagion (upon a bank failure) is high. The optimal policy may then be not to try to avoid bailouts, but to make them “effective”: associated with lower rents.