This paper is the third in a series assessing macroeconomic developments and prospects in low-income developing countries (LIDCs). The first of these papers (IMF, 2014a) examined trends during 2000–2014, a period of sustained strong growth across most LIDCs. The second paper (IMF, 2015a) focused on the impact of the drop in global commodity prices since mid-2014 on LIDCs—a story with losers (countries dependent on commodity exports, notably fuel) and winners (countries with a more diverse export base, where growth remained robust).
The overarching theme in this paper’s assessment of the macroeconomic conjuncture among LIDCs is that of incomplete adjustment to the new world of “lower for long” commodity prices, with many commodity exporters still far from a sustainable macroeconomic trajectory (Chapter 1). The analysis of risks and vulnerabilities focuses on financial sector stresses and medium-term fiscal risks, pointing to the actions, including capacity building, needed to manage and contain these challenges over time (Chapter 2). With 2016 the first year of the march towards the 2030 development goals, the paper also looks at how infrastructure investment can be accelerated in LIDCs, given that weaknesses in public infrastructure (such as energy, transportation systems) in LIDCs are widely seen as a key constraint on medium-term growth potential (Chapter 3).
With the sharp adjustment in commodity prices now into its third year, some of the key messages of the paper are familiar: a) many commodity exporters, notably fuel producers, remain under significant economic stress, with sluggish growth, large fiscal imbalances, and weakened foreign reserve positions; b) countries with a more diversified export base are generally doing well, although several have been hit by declines in remittances, conflict/natural disasters, and the contractionary impact of macroeconomic stabilization programs; c) widening fiscal imbalances, in both commodity and diversified exporters, have resulted in rising debt levels, with severe financing stress emerging in some cases; and d) financial sector stresses have emerged in many LIDCs, with expectations that these strains will increase in many commodity exporters over the next 12–18 months. Key messages on financial sector oversight, on medium-term fiscal risks, and on tackling infrastructure gaps are flagged below.
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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Selected Issues paper discusses the fiscal reforms needed for fiscal sustainability and inclusive growth in Djibouti. Djibouti is experiencing a predominantly debt-financed scaling up of public investment, which the authorities consider vital to boost growth and reduce widespread poverty and unemployment. Fiscal reforms will be needed to support fiscal consolidation and open up space for propoor expenditures that promote inclusive growth. Reform of the investment incentive framework and overall tax regime is also required to support fiscal consolidation and to level the playing field for investors and enhance revenue mobilization.
This Selected Issues paper reviews the evolution of inequality in Ethiopia and discusses the role of various macroeconomic policies as well as structural factors. With a Gini coefficient of 30, Ethiopia remains among the most egalitarian countries in the world. The most vulnerable households seem to experience less benefit from growth than those in the higher income deciles. In terms of tax revenue collection, Ethiopia faces the typical challenges of a developing country. It is required that Ethiopia builds on its successful experience with the Productive Safety Net Program to address the growing needs of the urban poor.
Rédigées par la branche Stratégie du Département Afrique du FMI et publiées deux fois l'an en anglais et en français, les « Perspectives économiques régionales : Afrique subsaharienne » analysent les résultats économiques et les perspectives à court terme des 44 pays couverts par le département. Thèmes évoqués dans les éditions précédentes : réactions aux chocs exogènes ; résultats en matière de croissance et politiques porteuses de croissance ; efficacité des arrangements commerciaux régionaux ; implications macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide ; développement du secteur financier ; décentralisation budgétaire. Des données détaillées sur les pays, groupés selon qu'ils sont exportateurs ou importateurs de pétrole et selon leur sous-région, sont présentées dans un appendice et un appendice statistique, et une liste des publications pertinentes du département Afrique est également fournie. ISSN 0258-7440.
Prepared by the Policy Wing of the IMF African Department, and published twice a year in English and French, Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa analyzes economic performance and short-term prospects of the 44 countries covered by the Department. Topics examined in recent volumes include responses to exogenous shocks, growth performance and growth-enhancing policies, the effectiveness of regional trade arrangements, macroeconomic implications of scaled-up aid, financial sector development, and fiscal decentralization. Detailed country data, grouped by oil-exporting and -importing countries and by subregion, are provided in an appendix and a statistical appendix, and a list of relevant publications by the African Department is included.
The year 2005 marks an important juncture for development as the international community takes stock of implementation of the Millennium Declaration—signed by 189 countries in 2000—and discusses how progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) can be accelerated. The MDGs set clear targets for reducing poverty and other human deprivations and for promoting sustainable development. What progress has been made toward these goals, and what should be done to accelerate it? What are the responsibilities of developing countries, developed countries, and international financial institutions? Global Monitoring Report 2005 addresses these questions. This report, the second in an annual series assessing progress on the MDGs and related development outcomes, has a special focus on Sub-Saharan Africa—the region that is farthest from the development goals and faces the toughest challenges in accelerating progress. The report finds that without rapid action to accelerate progress, the MDGs will be seriously jeopardized—especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is falling short on all the goals. It calls on the international community to seize the opportunities presented by the increased global attention to development to build momentum for the MDGs. The report presents in-depth analysis of the agenda and priorities for action. It discusses improvements in policies and governance that developing countries need to make to achieve stronger economic growth and scale up human development and relevant key services. It examines actions that developed countries need to take to provide more and better development aid and to reform their trade policies to improve market access for developing country exports. And it evaluates how international financial institutions can strengthen and sharpen their support for this agenda. Global Monitoring Report 2005 is essential reading for development practitioners and those interested in international affairs.
Ethiopia showed commendable performance under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) Arrangement. Executive Directors appreciated this development, and emphasized the need to strengthen fiscal and monetary policies, enhance revenues, strengthen public expenditure management, and introduce poverty-related activities. They welcomed the restructuring plan for the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, and stressed the need to strengthen the organizational structure and finances of the National Bank of Ethiopia. They agreed that Ethiopia has successfully completed the fifth review under the PRGF program, and approved further financial assistance.
Recent economic developments have been adversely affected by the severe drought. The mission and the authorities updated the macroeconomic framework for 2003/04 and the medium-term in light of recent developments and the latest World Economic Outlook (WEO) price projections. The fiscal strategy is focused on achieving and maintaining public debt sustainability, and maximizing the efficient use of highly concessional resources for poverty reduction-related activities. The policies to be implemented under the third annual program aim at maintaining macroeconomic stability and achieving rates of economic growth.
This paper assesses Ethiopia’s 2002 Article IV Consultation and Third Review Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) Arrangement. Performance under the first annual PRGF-supported program was good, and the second annual program remains on track. All the quantitative and structural performance criteria and benchmarks for December 2001 and March 2002 were met, with the exception of the revised regulation for the provisioning by banks for nonperforming loans, which was adopted, but was not fully in line with international best practice, as had been envisaged.