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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This report presents estimates of the tax gap for Denmark for the period 2008–12. There are two main components to the RA-GAP methodology for estimating the VAT gap: 1) estimate the potential VAT collections for a given period; and 2) determine the accrued VAT collections for that period. The difference between the two values is the VAT gap. The methodology employs a top-down approach for estimating the potential VAT base, using statistical data on value-added generated in each sector and constructs the accrued VAT collections value from tax record data. One of the main purposes of this report is to estimate the compliance gap. The compliance gap is the difference between the potential VAT that could have been collected given the current policy framework and actual accrued VAT collections. Other tax gap measures can be determined using different methods for determining potential VAT, and these other measures are important in understanding all the factors which are affecting current collections. This report will provide estimates for these other gap measures as well, and compare and contrast them with the compliance gap.
Mrs. Nina T Budina, Mr. Borja Gracia, Xingwei Hu, and Mr. Sergejs Saksonovs
This paper argues that asset price cycles have significant effects on fiscal outcomes. In particular, there is evidence of debt bias—the tendency of debt to increase over the cycle— that is significantly larger for house price cycles than stand-alone business cycles. Automatic stabilizers and discretionary fiscal policy generally respond to output fluctuations, whereas revenue increases due to house price booms are largely treated as permanent. Thus, neglecting the direct and indirect impact of asset prices on fiscal accounts encourages procyclical fiscal policies.
Mr. Michael Keen
This paper sets out some tools for understanding the performance of the value added tax (VAT). Applying a decomposition of VAT revenues (as a share of GDP) to the universe of VATs over the last twenty years, it emerges that developments have been driven much less by changes in standard rates than by changes in ‘C-efficiency’ (an indicator of the departure of the VAT from a perfectly enforced tax levied at a uniform rate on all consumption). Decomposing C-efficiency into a ‘policy gap’ (in turn divided into effects of rate differentiation and exemption) and a ‘compliance’ gap (reflecting imperfect implementation), results pieced together for EU members suggest that the former are in almost all cases far larger than the latter, with rate differentiation and exemptions playing roles that differ quite widely across countries.
International Monetary Fund
This paper is a detailed assessment of NOMX DM, undertaken in the context of the IMF Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Sweden in 2011. NOMX DM, the only Central Counter-parties (CCP) in Sweden, has provided clearing services for equity, fixed income derivatives, and repo transactions since 2010. Even though NOMX DM has a comprehensive risk management framework, relevant points were brought up in the assessment related to governance and risk management. Swedish authorities have taken necessary measures to improve the system.
International Monetary Fund
In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for selected Fund Activities (the “SFA Instrument”). The financing of activities under the terms of the SFA Instrument is implemented through the establishment and operation of subaccounts within the SFA. This paper requests Executive Board approval to establish the Denmark Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities (the “Subaccount”) under the terms of the SFA Instrument.
International Monetary Fund
In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for selected Fund Activities (the “SFA Instrument”). The financing of activities under the terms of the SFA Instrument is implemented through the establishment and operation of a subaccount within the SFA. This paper requests Executive Board approval to establish the World Bank Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities (the “Subaccount”) under the terms of the SFA instrument.
Ms. Evridiki Tsounta
This paper analyzes the role of the tax and benefit system in spurring the impressive increase in Canadian female labor participation in the last decade. Using annual panel data for 10 large industrial countries over the period 1980-2001, I find that reforms in the Canadian tax and benefit system in the mid-1990s account for at least one-third of the observed increase in female participation in the period 1995-2001. The analysis indicates that policy initiatives similar to the "family-friendly" policies introduced in Canada could boost female participation in other countries and help policymakers meet the challenges of population aging.
International Monetary Fund
This 2002 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in Denmark slowed significantly during 2001 as domestic demand weakened and exports were hit by the global economic slowdown. Unemployment remained low and wage growth was somewhat faster than in euro area partner countries. However, price inflation was subdued. Monetary conditions were eased during 2001 as Danish interest rates generally followed those of the European Central Bank downward. The 2002 budget implies a broadly neutral fiscal stance with the surplus projected to remain within the medium-term target of 1.5–2.5 percent of GDP.
Mrs. Poonam Gupta and Mr. Walter Mahler
The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120 countries. It concludes that a significant reduction in the present extremely wide variation in petroleum prices and tax rates appears warranted.
Mr. George Kopits

Abstract

Tax harmonization is an integral part of completing the single European market. Expansion of the single market to the European Economic Area, and eventually to some Eastern European countries, suggests that the EC approach to tax harmonization will apply more broadly than origninally envisaged. This study considers these issues and examines the case for harmonizing taxation of commodities and capital income in the single European market; principles of international taxation; the impact of harmonizing value-added taxes; and EC Structural Funds.