Thomas Elkjaer, Jannick Damgaard, and Emmanuel O. Kumah
This paper analyzes the seven valuation methods for unlisted direct investment equity included in the recently adopted IMF Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, Sixth Edition (BPM6). Based on publicly available Danish data, we test the three methods that are generally applicable and find that the choice of valuation method and estimation technique can have a highly significant impact on the international investment position, pointing to the need for further harmonization. The results show that the price-to-book value method generates more robust market value estimates than the price-to-earnings method. This finding suggests that the valuation basis for the forthcoming Coordinated Direct Investment Survey - own funds at book value -will provide useful information for compiling the international investment position.
This Selected Issues paper examines the external sector issues in Hungary. It looks at some traditional indicators of external competitiveness, and provides basic background on key macroeconomic developments, including the current account and its financing. The paper examines various measures of the real effective exchange rate, the labor market considerations, and actual export performance. The paper concludes that although external competitiveness of the Hungarian economy has not been permanently impaired and the country is doing well from various vantage points, a significant dent has been put in competitiveness.