This paper examines the challenges and policy options after hyperinflation in Zimbabwe. The paper reviews the pros and cons of alternative monetary regimes for Zimbabwe to succeed the current multicurrency system, which the authorities consider a temporary arrangement. The analysis suggests that some form of official dollarization has significant advantages. The paper also assesses competitiveness and external sustainability in debt-distressed Zimbabwe. It also makes a case for creating fiscal space for growth and development in post-hyperinflation Zimbabwe.
Namibia’s economic position has been reinforced since the last consultation. The government strategy of broadening the economic base and reducing unemployment while preserving a solid fiscal position is commended. Namibia has ensured that interest rate differentials with South Africa do not destabilize official reserves or capital flows within the common monetary area. The banking system is profitable and well capitalized. Efforts are being made to increase employment opportunities in the non-mining economy by making the labor market more flexible and continuing liberalization of the trade regime.
This paper provides an overview of diamond mining in sub-Saharan African countries, and explores the reasons for substantial differences in their tax rates and fiscal revenues from the sector, which mainly arise from differences in the incentives for smuggling. In a theoretical model, we show that optimal diamond tax rates increase with the degree of competition among diamond buyers, as well as with the corporate share of diamond production, which is confirmed by the data. We then discuss policies to increase revenue, including by enhancing mining productivity, stimulating the exploration of new areas, reducing barriers to entry, and attracting investment into value-adding downstream operations.