This Technical Assistance Report discusses the advice provided by the IMF staff to the authorities of Uganda regarding extractive industry fiscal regimes. As Uganda’s portfolio of projects diversifies in the oil sector, the minimum take could be adjusted to allow for possible bonus bids, and for higher shares in the most successful projects. The royalty design also needs to take account of new provisions for distribution of a portion to local governments. The cost recovery limit could be set at 70 percent after deduction of royalty. In addition to work program, either a signature bonus or an upper tier of production sharing should form the bid variable in the licensing round, with all other items fixed and non-negotiable.
This Technical Assistance Report discusses the advice provided by the IMF staff to the authorities of Uganda regarding implementation of fiscal regimes for extractive industries. The report considers options on how to conduct future licensing rounds, including possible bid variables and bid evaluation methods. It provides detailed comments on the draft model Production Sharing Agreement, along with simulations of its fiscal terms. The report also explains how crude oil price into the refinery is likely to be a negotiated outcome using the pipeline tariff as a guide.
This Technical Assistance Report discusses key findings of the assessment of Mali’s mining and petroleum taxation. It is highlighted that the transparency of the mining or petroleum sector in Mali could be improved through the online publication of agreements signed with operating companies and their feasibility studies. The establishment of a standardized framework for the economic analysis of mining and petroleum project feasibility studies would improve governance in the natural resources sector. It is also recommended to establish the ring-fencing principle in a revised Mining Code and in the draft Petroleum Code.
This Technical Assistance report reviews South Africa’s tax system and also examines the fiscal regime with a view to generating a sustainable revenue contribution from mining and petroleum in future. Mining has historically been the mainstay of the South African economy. Mineral exports remain the principal contributor to foreign exchange earnings on the current account. South Africa is not yet a significant producer of crude oil or natural gas. Oil and gas exploration nevertheless shows promise. Taxation is far from top of the list in current challenges facing the development of extractive industries in South Africa. The national goal of economic and social transformation in favor of Historically Disadvantaged South Africans has major impact on the mining sector.
This Selected Issues paper presents an analysis of change in Zambia’s mining fiscal regime. Foreign investment has revived Zambia’s mining sector. However, its mining sector’s direct contribution to government revenues has been low. Reflecting persistent concerns about the low contribution of the mining sector to budget revenues, the government has amended the fiscal regime many times over the last seven years. The 2015 budget introduced major changes to the mining fiscal regime. The authorities estimate that the change would boost budget revenues from the mining sector by about 1 percent of GDP, based on an assumption that the change would have no adverse impact on production.
This Technical Assistance Report discusses continued modernization of the Malian tax system and administration of natural resources. The Malian mining sector essentially consists of gold mining. The diversification policy is a failure at this point. The authorities’ stated objective of diversifying mining production has not produced a clear, consistent action plan. Apart from precious substances, the high cost of bulk transportation (minerals), the technical and financial difficulties of local processing, and the weak domestic market make it unlikely that Mali’s mining future can be defined other than by gold in the short or medium term.
Better designed and implemented fiscal regimes for oil, gas, and mining can make a substantial contribution to the revenue needs of many developing countries while ensuring an attractive return for investors, according to a new policy paper from the International Monetary Fund. Revenues from extractive industries (EIs) have major macroeconomic implications. The EIs account for over half of government revenues in many petroleum-rich countries, and for over 20 percent in mining countries. About one-third of IMF member countries find (or could find) resource revenues “macro-critical” – especially with large numbers of recent new discoveries and planned oil, gas, and mining developments.
IMF policy advice and technical assistance in the field has massively expanded in recent years – driven by demand from member countries and supported by increased donor finance. The paper sets out the analytical framework underpinning, and key elements of, the country-specific advice given.
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Also available in French: Régimes fiscaux des industries extractives: conception et application
Also available in Spanish: Regímenes fiscales de las industrias extractivas: Diseño y aplicación
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.