Chile’s small open economy with significant mismatch between the production and consumption
baskets may be represented by three stylized sectors, a commodity sector, a non-commodity
tradable sector, and a non-tradable sector. This paper estimates the effect of copper price shocks
on mining, manufacturing, and construction—each embodying a sector type. The empirical
findings are for positive spillovers from mining to the other two sectors. However, the estimated
size of the spillovers seems modest, which raises the question of the potential for mining to be
better integrated with the rest of the economy.
This paper documents and assesses the risk stemming from rising corporate indebtedness in China using a firm-level dataset of listed firms. It finds that while leverage on average is not high, there is a fat tail of highly leveraged firms accounting for a significant share of total corporate debt, mainly concentrated in the real estate and construction sector and state-owned enterprises in general. The real estate and construction firms tend to face lower borrowing costs and could withstand a modest increase of interest rate shocks despite their high leverage. The corporate sector is however vulnerable to a significant slowdown in the real estate and construction sector. Our sensitivity analysis suggests that the share of debt that would be in financial distress would rise to about a quarter of total listed firm debt in the event of a 20 percent decline in real estate and construction profits.
Mr. Bennett W Sutton, Mrs. Genevieve M Lindow, Maria Isabel Serra, Mr. Gustavo Ramirez, and Maria Fernanda Pazmino
This paper presents empirical evidence on convergence of per capita output for regions within six large middle-income Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. It explores the role played by several exogenous sectoral shocks and differences in steady states within each country. It finds that poor and rich regions within each country converged at very low rates over the past three decades. It also finds evidence of regional "convergence clubs" within Brazil and Peru- the estimated speeds of convergence for these countries more than double after controlling for different subnational levels of steady state. For the latter countries and Chile, convergence is also higher after controlling for sector-specific shocks. Finally, results show that national disparities in per capita output increased temporarily after each country pursued trade liberalization.