Browse

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Type: Journal Issue x
Clear All Modify Search
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper estimates potential output growth and the output gap for Guatemala. Potential output growth averaged 4.4 percent just before the global financial crisis but has since declined to 3.75 percent owing to lower capital accumulation and total factor productivity (TFP) growth. It is estimated at 3.8 percent in 2016, and the output gap has virtually closed. Potential growth is expected to reach 4 percent in the medium term owing to the expected improvements in TFP growth. Policies should also prioritize mobilizing domestic savings to invest and build a higher capital stock.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that Panama’s economic performance remains buoyant. Real GDP growth averaged about 8.5 percent over the past decade, the highest in Latin America, supported by an ambitious public investment program, and accompanied by strong reduction in unemployment, poverty, and income inequality. After exceeding 10 percent in 2011–2012, growth slowed to 8.4 percent in 2013 reflecting mainly a decline in Colon Free Zone activity and in Canal traffic. Growth is expected to remain strong over the medium term. Inflation is moderating, owing to the deceleration of international food and oil prices. The baseline outlook is favorable, with moderate risks.
Mr. Geoffrey J Bannister and Mr. Luis D Barrot
This paper presents an alternative method for calculating debt targets using the debt intolerance literature of Reinhart, Rogoff, and Savastano (2003) and Reinhart and Rogoff (2009). The methodology presented improves on the previous papers by using a dynamic panel approach, correcting for endogeneity in the regressors and basing the calculation of debt targets on credit ratings, a more objective criteria. In addition the study uses a new data base on general government debt covering 120 countries over 21 years. The paper suggests a ranking of Central America, Panama, and Dominican Republic (CAPDR) countries in terms of debt intolerance - an index which could be used to further investigate the main components of debt intolerance.
Mr. Andrew J Swiston
This paper examines El Salvador’s transition to official dollarization by comparing aspects of this regime to the fixed exchange rate regime prevailing in the 1990s. Commercial bank interest rates are analyzed under an uncovered interest parity framework, and it is found that dollarization lowered rates by 4 to 5 percent by reducing currency risk. This has generated net annual savings averaging ½ percent of GDP for the private sector and ¼ percent of GDP for the public sector (net of the losses from foregone seigniorage). Estimated Taylor rules show a strong positive association between Salvadoran output and U.S. Federal Reserve policy since dollarization, implying that this policy has served to stabilize economic activity more than it did under the peg and more than policy rates in Central American countries with independent monetary policy have done. Dollarization does not appear to have affected the transmission mechanism, as pass-through of monetary policy to commercial interest rates has been similar to pass-through under the peg and in the rest of Central America.
Åke Lönnberg and Mr. Luis Ignacio Jácome
This paper identifies key aspects that countries willing to officially dollarize must necessarily address. Based on country experiences, it discusses the critical institutional bases that are necessary to unilaterally introduce a new legal tender, describes the relevant operational issues to smooth the transition toward the use of the new currency, and identifies key structural reforms that are necessary to favor the sustainability over time of this monetary regime. The paper is aimed at providing preliminary guidance to policy makers and practitioners adopting official dollarization. The paper does not take a position on how appropriate this monetary arrangement is. Experiences from adopting dollarization in Ecuador, El Salvador, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Timor-Leste are illustrated briefly.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This study examines the challenges and issues facing policymakers in highly dollarized economies. Focusing on Cambodia, which achieved almost complete dollarization during 1991-95, the authors review recent developments in the literature on dollarization and examine the costs and benefits of dollarization in Cambodia, including the ensuing macroeconomic policy implications. They carry out an econometric estimation of cash foreign currency circulation in Cambodia in order to gauge the degree of dollarization. In addition to this analysis, the authors present a short description of Cambodia’s economic, financial, and structural background.