Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 50 items for :

  • Type: Journal Issue x
Clear All Modify Search
Lien Laureys, Mr. Roland Meeks, and Boromeus Wanengkirtyo
We reconsider the design of welfare-optimal monetary policy when financing frictions impair the supply of bank credit, and when the objectives set for monetary policy must be simple enough to be implementable and allow for effective accountability. We show that a flexible inflation targeting approach that places weight on stabilizing inflation, a measure of resource utilization, and a financial variable produces welfare benefits that are almost indistinguishable from fully-optimal Ramsey policy. The macro-financial trade-off in our estimated model of the euro area turns out to be modest, implying that the effects of financial frictions can be ameliorated at little cost in terms of inflation. A range of different financial objectives and policy preferences lead to similar conclusions.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2019 Article IV Consultation with Australia discusses that a continued gradual economic recovery is expected, subject to downside risks. Growth should continue to recover in 2020, but it will take time for the economy to return to potential and restore inflation to within the target range. Despite sound macroeconomic fundamentals and policy management, growth remains below potential and inflation is slightly below its target range. Growth is projected to recover gradually in the near term, supported by monetary policy easing, tax cuts, and the recovery of housing markets. Nonetheless, inflation is forecast to remain slightly below the target range until 2021 due to persistent economic slack. Downside risks, including a renewed escalation of the China–US tensions and weaker private consumption, remain elevated and have increased recently due to the widespread bushfires and the coronavirus outbreak. On the upside, looser financial conditions could re-accelerate asset-price inflation, boosting private consumption but also adding to medium-term vulnerabilities.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper focuses on gaps and multiplier effects of infrastructure investment in New Zealand. There has been high quality work done to quantify the infrastructure gap for New Zealand by Oxford Economics on behalf of the Global Infrastructure Hub, drawing on international experiences and local data sources, but recognizing the risk that the infrastructure gap may be even larger than that stated in this work. This paper provides further analysis about the effects on New Zealand’s economy of closing the infrastructure gap. Closing the gap has quantifiable benefits, not just because it is a short-term stimulus to aggregate demand, but because of longer-lived effects on productivity, benefiting all sectors of the economy. There are prospective gains from closing New Zealand’s infrastructure gap. New Zealand has improved its infrastructure spending in the past several years. Nonetheless, there is scope to expand it further, to reduce its (admittedly small, but probably understated) infrastructure gap to match other advanced economies, and possibly help with regional development concerns.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper on Australia discusses prospects and ramifications of China’s economic transition. Australia and China have strong linkages that are growing over time as China carries on with its economic transition. Trade in commodities and services are constantly growing. Australia has established itself as a dominant player in some key Chinese import needs, particularly for steel. The stylized facts also demonstrate that the rest of Asia is increasingly important for Australia. The charts for tourism, education, and the destination of exports illustrate that both advanced and emerging Asia already have a growing impact. The paper shows that the rest of Asia’s trade linkages with Australia are similar in size to the linkages between Australia and China. China may be Australia’s largest trading partner, but the rest of Asia is also a rapidly growing region, with potential markets for Australian expansion.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper examines the adjustment of Australian labor markets to the recent adverse shocks. Australia’s labor markets were not severely impacted by the global financial crisis and are adjusting smoothly to the sizeable commodity prices bust and mining investment downturn. However, some labor market indicators suggest persistent weaknesses. There does not appear to be a significant increase in structural employment in the wake of the commodity prices bust and mining investment decline. Increased flexibility in average hours per worker has likely moderated employment reduction in downturns and prevented a larger increase in unemployment in the wake of the mining investment downturn. At the same time, elevated underemployment signals additional slack, and is likely weighing down wage growth.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that Australia has enjoyed robust growth despite the commodity price and mining investment bust. The moderate impact of the large shocks since 2011 highlights the resilience of the economy and strong policy frameworks. Recent structural reforms have focused on fostering innovation. The National Innovation and Science Agenda includes measures to boost innovation and entrepreneurship in the high-tech sector, including through tax breaks. Legislation is being prepared for key components of the Harper Review, which has identified a number of reforms to boost competition and productivity in the services sectors, and to strengthen competition policy broadly.