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International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department, International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept., and International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.
To help support members faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, the Fund temporarily increased certain access limits to its emergency financing (EF) instruments, i.e., Rapid Credit Facility (RCF) and Rapid Financing Instrument (RFI). While this expanded support has been critical to help countries manage the pandemic, the increase in access limits was not applied to the Large Natural Disasters (LND) windows within the EF toolkit, reducing the flexibility to respond to such LNDs. This paper proposes to temporarily increase by 50 percent of quota the annual access limit (AAL) and cumulative access limit (CAL) under the LND windows of the RCF and RFI. The changes to the “LND windows” would be in effect through end-December 2021, in line with the other temporary changes of access limits under EF instruments. The case for further extensions to all the temporarily increased EF AALs and CALs will be examined after the 2021 Annual Meetings.
International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept. and International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
At the request of His Excellency the President of the Republic and Head of State, the Legal (LEG) and Fiscal Affairs (FAD) Departments of the IMF conducted an assessment of governance and corruption mission in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) from December 9 to 20, 2019 (the “mission”).1 The objectives of the mission were to discuss with the authorities (i) a diagnostic of governance issues in the DRC; and (ii) to articulate measures to help improve governance and the fight against corruption.
International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept. and International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
At the request of His Excellency the President of the Republic and Head of State, the Legal (LEG) and Fiscal Affairs (FAD) Departments of the IMF conducted an assessment of governance and corruption mission in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) from December 9 to 20, 2019 (the “mission”).1 The objectives of the mission were to discuss with the authorities (i) a diagnostic of governance issues in the DRC; and (ii) to articulate measures to help improve governance and the fight against corruption.
Mr. Mauro Mecagni, Mr. Juan S Corrales, Mr. Jemma Dridi, Mr. Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu, Patrick A. Imam, Mr. Justin Matz, Ms. Carla Macario, Mr. Rodolfo Maino, Mr. Yibin Mu, Ashwin Moheeput, Mr. Futoshi Narita, Mr. Marco Pani, Mr. Manuel Rosales Torres, Mr. Sebastian Weber, and Mr. Etienne B Yehoue
Dollarization—the use of foreign currencies as a medium of exchange, store of value, or unit of account—is a notable feature of financial development under macroeconomically fragile conditions. It has emerged as a key factor explaining vulnerabilities and currency crises, which have long been observed in Latin America, parts of Asia, and Eastern Europe. Dollarization is also present, prominently, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where it remains significant and persistent at over 30 percent rates for both bank loans and deposits—although it has not increased significantly since 2001. However, progress in reducing dollarization has lagged behind other regions and, in this regard, it is legitimate to ask whether this phenomenon is an important concern in SSA. This study fills a gap in the literature by analyzing these issues with specific reference to the SSA region on the basis of the evidence for the past decade.
Mr. Felix Fischer, Charlotte J. Lundgren, and Mr. Samir Jahjah
The paper looks at the challenges of conducting monetary policy in a context of high dollarization of the banking system and weak institutions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The empirical analysis confirms the limited effectiveness of the Central Bank of Congo in controlling inflation, despite a rapid policy response to inflation shocks. Options available to enhance the effectiveness of monetary policy are limited. After exploring the pros and cons of different exchange regimes we conclude that strengthening the current monetary policy framework remains the first-best option, given the country’s exposure to frequent terms-of-trade shocks.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
International Monetary Fund
Macroeconomic developments in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) region have been satisfactory, but risks to macroeconomic stability persist. The process of convergence remains slow and needs strengthening, notably through the adoption of a fiscal rule and the elimination of bank financing of fiscal deficits. Continued efforts by the banking regulator are needed to strengthen the banking sector. There is a need to accelerate structural reforms, strengthen basic infrastructure, and adopt common sectoral policies aimed at diversifying the regional economy.
Mr. Gianni De Nicolo, Mr. Patrick Honohan, and Mr. Alain Ize
This paper assesses the benefits and risks associated with dollarization of the banking system. We provide novel empirical evidence on the determinants of dollarization, its role in promoting financial development, and on whether dollarization is associated with financial instability. We find that: (a) the credibility of macroeconomic policy and the quality of institutions are both key determinants of cross-country variations in dollarization; (b) dollarization is likely to promote financial deepening only in a high inflation environment; and (c) financial instability is likely higher in dollarized economies. The implications of these findings for financial sector and monetary policies are discussed.