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Mr. Charles R Taylor, Christopher Wilson, Eija Holttinen, and Anastasiia Morozova
Fintech developments are shaking up mandates within the existing regulatory architecture. It is not uncommon for financial sector agencies to have multiple policy objectives. Most often the policy objectives for these agencies reflect prudential, conduct and financial stability policy objectives. In some cases, financial sector agencies are also allocated responsibility for enhancing competition and innovation. When it comes to fintech, countries differ to some extent in the manner they balance the objectives of promoting the development of fintech and regulating it. Countries see fintech as a means of achieving multiple policy objectives sometimes with lesser or greater degrees of emphasis, such as accelerating development and spurring financial inclusion, while others may support innovation with the objective of promoting competition and efficiency in the provision of financial services. This difference in emphasis may impact institutional structures, including the allocation of staff resources. Conflicts of interest arising from dual roles are sometimes managed through legally established prioritization of objectives or establishment of separate internal reporting lines for supervision and development.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical note reviews the institutional arrangement and supervisory practices for the insurance and securities sectors in Malta, focusing on supervisory effectiveness. The legal powers and supervisory objectives of the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) are clear and in line with international standards. The MFSA has adequate legal authority to discharge its supervisory responsibilities and to take the necessary preventive and corrective measures to protect the public interest. Clearly established legal gateways for information sharing facilitate supervisory coordination and cooperation between the MFSA and relevant supervisors/authorities, domestically and internationally. For the avoidance of doubt, the MFSA has proposed amending the MFSA Act to explicitly include the promotion of financial stability and financial market integrity as one of its key functions. Stable funding and full autonomy over the recruitment process are needed to support the MFSA’s operational and financial independence. Recognizing the scope for harmonizing and enhancing the current sectoral risk-based supervision frameworks (RBSF), the MFSA is developing an integrated RBSF.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper reviews observance of Insurance Core Principles in Indonesia. Insurance regulation and supervision have been remarkably improved since the establishment of the Financial Services Authority (OJK) and the enactment of the new Insurance Law. However, the assessment has identified a significant number of shortfalls in observance with the Insurance Core Principles. Some deficiencies are owing to the lack of effective group regulation and supervision of insurance groups. Although OJK has implemented regulations related with risk management and group capital, intragroup transactions are not well taken into account. It is recommended that OJK should improve the effectiveness of supervision. Thematic reviews of reserving practices will encourage more conservative reserving.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note presents an assessment of Regulation, Supervision and Systemic Risk Monitoring in New Zealand. The overall regulatory framework for asset management is well developed, but would benefit from some enhancements to prevent the buildup of risks. The provision of custody services does not require a license in New Zealand, and custodians therefore fall outside the direct supervision of the Financial Markets Authority (FMA). They are neither subject to prudential requirements nor to ongoing supervision by any other authority. Given that custodians perform key functions regarding safeguarding investors’ assets, the government should require that these entities be licensed and subject to ongoing supervision by the FMA.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

A moderate recovery has set in, supported by an increasing number of new firms and rising employment. Fiscal deficits are contained and some efforts are underway to assess and better address test banking sector weaknesses. However, the challenges of restoring financial stability, creating fiscal space, and achieving sustainable growth remain considerable.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This IMF Staff Report for the 2016 Discussion on Common Policies of Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) Member Countries highlights that the regional recovery in ECCU is gaining ground, supported by continued low oil prices, strong tourism arrivals, and robust citizenship-by-investment receipts. Risks to the near-term outlook are balanced, but growth in the ECCU continues to be hindered by weak competitiveness, banking sector fragilities, susceptibility to natural disasters, and large public debt. The Executive Directors have encouraged the authorities to press ahead with sound macroeconomic policies and structural reforms to decisively address these issues and strengthen the conditions for robust long term growth.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper evaluates observance of the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision in the Russian Federation. The legal framework currently in place provides the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) with necessary powers and responsibilities. The CBR may authorize banks, conduct ongoing supervision, oversee compliance with laws, and undertake corrective action to address safety and soundness. Major new reforms increase many aspects of the CBR’s duties and powers, although implementation has not yet been tested in all cases. The Russian licensing regime for banks appears exhaustive. However, the legal regime for major acquisitions was found to be weak.