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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper discusses initiatives to promote export diversification and growth in Liberia. Liberia’s exports have been very concentrated in the past, but some progress in export diversification has been made in recent years, mostly in the enclave sectors. The government has launched the Liberia Agricultural Transformation Agenda (LATA) to support diversification and transformation. LATA strives to build up the agricultural sector as well as adopt a supportive industrial policy. Improving business climate and external competitiveness could play an important role in increasing export diversification in Liberia. Efficiency could also be increased through better access to markets and technology, cheaper imported inputs, as well as more competition with imports.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews the Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative for Liberia. Performance under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF)-supported program is solid. The third ECF review was completed on a lapse of time basis on December 18, 2009. All but one of the quantitative performance criteria (PC) for the end-June 2009 test date were observed. The PC on total revenue collection was not observed but the deviation was temporary and did not jeopardize program objectives. Structural reform commitments were largely met, though some with delays.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews the Fund’s income position for FY 2009 and FY 2010. The proposals build on previous discussions relating to implementation of the new income model, the framework for accumulating precautionary balances, and the recent reform of the Fund’s lending toolkit. The paper is structured as follows: Section II reviews the income position for FY 2009 and explains the main changes from the projections at the midyear review; Section III makes proposals that pertain to the FY 2009 income position, including the disposition of investment income, the overall income position of the General Resources Account (GRA), and the annual reimbursement of the GRA for the expenses of conducting the business of the SDR Department and the MDRI-I Trust; Section IV reviews the FY 2010 income outlook, including the margin for the rate of charge; Section V reviews the burden sharing mechanism; and Section VI reviews special charges.
Jeta Menkulasi, Lodewyk Erasmus, and Jules Leichter
Liberia's experience with a dual currency regime, with the U.S. dollar enjoying legal tender status, dates to its founding as a sovereign country in 1847. Following the end of the most recent episode of civil war in late-2003, the new government has expressed interest in strengthening the role of the Liberian dollar. Liberia, however, is heavily dollarized, with the U.S. dollar estimated to account for about 90 percent of money supply. Cross-country experience suggests that dollarization does not preclude monetary policy from achieving its primary objective of price stability, and that successful and lasting dedollarization may be difficult to achieve.
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides the basis for the annual review of the Fund’s income position, including a review of the system of special charges. The paper also sets out proposed decisions relating to the Fund’s income position for FY 2008 and FY 2009. The review takes account of the recent discussions in the Executive Board on the new income model for the Fund. The paper is structured as follows: Section II reviews the Fund’s FY 2008 income position, provides an explanation of key variances from projections, and discusses the impact of restructuring costs on the income position; Section III makes proposals for the disposition of investment income and the General Resources Account (GRA) income position; Section IV outlines updated projections and proposes a margin for the rate of charge for FY 2009; Section V provides an update on the burden sharing mechanism; and Section VI reviews special charges.
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides the basis for the Executive Board’s midyear review of the Fund’s income position based on developments in the first half of FY 2008. Under Rule I-6(4) of the Fund’s Rules and Regulations, the Executive Board should consider whether the margin over the SDR interest rate used to calculate the rate of charge as determined at the beginning of the year should be changed in light of the actual income position for the first six months.
Mr. Arto Kovanen
This paper reviews the reserve requirement arrangements of sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the differences between reserve requirements on domestic- and foreign-currency deposits. The reserve requirement systems in sub-Saharan Africa are relatively simple and transparent, but in some countries high unremunerated reserve ratios impose a significant implicit tax on the banks. The currency denomination of the foreign-currency reserve deposits raises concern in countries undergoing large macroeconomic changes or experiencing exchange rate volatility.
International Monetary Fund


This pamphlet describes the financial structure and operations of the IMF, as well as the sources of IMF financing, the policies associated with the use of IMF resources, the role of the IMF as trustee to various accounts that are administered by it, and the safeguards established for protecting the IMF's resources. Published in 1990. Extensively revised in 2001 (sixth edition).