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Mr. Charles R Taylor, Christopher Wilson, Eija Holttinen, and Anastasiia Morozova
Fintech developments are shaking up mandates within the existing regulatory architecture. It is not uncommon for financial sector agencies to have multiple policy objectives. Most often the policy objectives for these agencies reflect prudential, conduct and financial stability policy objectives. In some cases, financial sector agencies are also allocated responsibility for enhancing competition and innovation. When it comes to fintech, countries differ to some extent in the manner they balance the objectives of promoting the development of fintech and regulating it. Countries see fintech as a means of achieving multiple policy objectives sometimes with lesser or greater degrees of emphasis, such as accelerating development and spurring financial inclusion, while others may support innovation with the objective of promoting competition and efficiency in the provision of financial services. This difference in emphasis may impact institutional structures, including the allocation of staff resources. Conflicts of interest arising from dual roles are sometimes managed through legally established prioritization of objectives or establishment of separate internal reporting lines for supervision and development.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical note examines the implications of fintech for the regulation and supervision of the Singaporean financial services sector. It provides an overview of the financial system with a focus on fintech developments. The note looks at not only fintech developments but also the institutional setup as well as Monetary Authority of Singapore’s (MAS) approach to fintech. The MAS has so far managed to strike the right balance between innovation and safety and soundness. MAS has responded quickly to the challenges of fintech. The impact of fintech on the financial services sector has largely been internalized by financial institutions (FI). FIs are swiftly digitizing and modernizing their systems, products and business models. Because of their market knowledge and higher investment capacities, incumbent FIs are getting better at providing services and products by adopting new technologies or improving existing ones. The note also recommends that it is imperative to develop a cyber network map that considers both financial linkages and Information and Communications Technology connections and use it for cyber risk surveillance.
Mr. Tanai Khiaonarong and David Humphrey
The level and trend in cash use in a country will influence the demand for central bank digital currency (CBDC). While access to digital currency will be more convenient than traveling to an ATM, it only makes CBDC like a bank debit card—not better. Demand for digital currency will thus be weak in countries where cash use is already very low, due to a preference for cash substitutes (cards, electronic money, mobile phone payments). Where cash use is very high, demand should be stronger, due to a lack of cash substitutes. As the demand for CBDC is tied to the current level of cash use, we estimate the level and trend in cash use for 11 countries using four different measures. A tentative forecast of cash use is also made. After showing that declining cash use is largely associated with demographic change, we tie the level of cash use to the likely demand for CBDC in different countries. In this process, we suggest that one measure of cash use is more useful than the others. If cash is important for monetary policy, payment instrument competition, or as an alternative payment instrument in the event of operational problems with privately supplied payment methods, the introduction of CBDC may best be introduced before cash substitutes become so ubiquitous that the viability of CBDC could be in doubt.
Mr. Eugenio M Cerutti and Haonan Zhou
This paper analyses the nature of the increasing regionalization process in global banking. Despite the large decline in aggregate cross-border banking lending volumes, some parts of the global banking network are currently more interlinked regionally than before the Global Financial Crisis. After developing a simple theoretical model capturing banks' internationalization decisions, our estimation shows that this regionalization trend is present even after controlling for traditional gravitational variables (e.g. distance, language, legal system, etc.), especially among lenders in EMs and non-core banking systems, such as Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore. Moreover, this regionalization trend was present before the GFC, but it has increased since then, and it seems to be associated with regulatory variables and the opportunities created by the retrenchment of several European lenders.
Dirk Jan Grolleman and David Jutrsa
The withdrawal of correspondent banking relationships (CBRs) remains a concern for the international community because, in affected jurisdictions, the decline could have potential adverse consequences on international trade, growth, financial inclusion, and the stability and integrity of the financial system. Building on existing initiatives and IMF technical assistance, this paper discusses a framework that can be readily used by central banks and supervisory authorities to effectively monitor the developments of CBRs in their jurisdiction. The working paper explains the monitoring framework and includes the necessary reporting templates and an analytical tool for the collection of data and analysis of CBRs.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper develops a new calibrated model of the Singapore economy, the Singapore Global Policy MODel (SGPMOD), and uses it to conduct a variety of policy experiments focused on the conduct of monetary policy. The SGPMOD is used to illustrate the role of the monetary policy responses of Singapore’s monetary authority following a variety of domestic and external shocks. It is suggested that monetary policy can do little to prevent the trough in real GDP in late 2016, but it can definitely contribute to a speedier recovery. In the near term, there is general global turbulence in exchange rate markets, exacerbating the negative effects from Singapore’s transmission mechanism and its reliance on the uncovered interest parity condition.