Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 35 items for :

  • Type: Journal Issue x
  • Notes and Manuals x
  • National income x
Clear All Modify Search
Mr. Kwangwon Lee

Abstract

The Quarterly National Accounts Manual (the Manual) provides conceptual and practical guidance for compiling quarterly national accounts (QNA) statistics. The Manual offers a comprehensive review of data sources, statistical methods, and compilation techniques to derive official estimates of quarterly GDP. The new edition—which upgrades the first edition, published in 2001—improves and expands the previous content based on recent methodological advances, best country practices, and suggestions received from QNA compilers and experts.

Mr. Kwangwon Lee

Abstract

The Quarterly National Accounts Manual (the Manual) provides conceptual and practical guidance for compiling quarterly national accounts (QNA) statistics. The Manual offers a comprehensive review of data sources, statistical methods, and compilation techniques to derive official estimates of quarterly GDP. The new edition—which upgrades the first edition, published in 2001—improves and expands the previous content based on recent methodological advances, best country practices, and suggestions received from QNA compilers and experts.

Mr. Michael Stanger
A Supply and Use Table (SUT) serve to increase the quality of GDP and related aggregates by providing a framework to detect and resolve inconsistencies in data sources. SUTs are also a powerful analytical tool that permit users to access information on detailed production functions, consumption, export, and import baskets, or to derive input-output tables. SUT compilation is data intensive and requires a balancing process. The balancing procedure is labor intensive and generally requires several long and sometimes tedious iterations, which has an adverse effect on timeliness. This note describes a basic algorithm developed by the IMF to balance supply and use tables automatically, allowing a much faster SUT balancing process. For training purposes, this algorithm has been implemented as an Excel tool SUTB, making it operational almost globally. The optimization process is illustrated with an example.
Mr. Junji Ueda
The IMF Fiscal Affairs Department's Revenue Administration Gap Analysis Program (RA-GAP) aims to provide a quantitative analysis of the tax gap between potential revenues and actual collections, and this technical note explains the concept of the tax gap for corporate income tax (CIT), and the methodology to estimate CIT gaps. It includes detailed steps to derive the potential CIT base and liability with careful consideration for the theoretical differences between the coverage of statistical macroeconomic data and the actual tax base of CIT, and then compare the estimated results with actual declarations and revenues. Although the estimated gaps following the approach will have margins of errors, it has the advantage of using available data without additional costs of collection and suits initial evaluations of overall CIT noncompliance in a country.
Mr. Eric Hutton
The IMF Fiscal Affairs Department’s Revenue Administration Gap Analysis Program (RA-GAP) assists revenue administrations from IMF member countries in monitoring taxpayer compliance through tax gap analysis. The RA-GAP methodology for estimating the VAT gap presented in this Technical Note has some distinct advantages over commonly used methodologies. By using a value-added approach to estimating potential VAT revenues, as compared to the more traditional final consumption approach used by most countries undertaking VAT gap estimation, the RA-GAP methodology can provide VAT compliance gap estimates on a sector-by-sector basis, which assists revenue administrations to better target compliance efforts to close the gap. In addition, the RA-GAP methodology uses a unique measurement for actual VAT revenues, which isolates changes in revenue performance that might be due to cash management (e.g., delays in refunds) from those due to actual changes in taxpayer compliance.
Mr. Eric Hutton
The IMF Fiscal Affairs Department’s Revenue Administration Gap Analysis Program (RA-GAP) assists revenue administrations from IMF member countries in monitoring taxpayer compliance through tax gap analysis. The RA-GAP methodology for estimating the VAT gap presented in this Technical Note has some distinct advantages over commonly used methodologies. By using a value-added approach to estimating potential VAT revenues, as compared to the more traditional final consumption approach used by most countries undertaking VAT gap estimation, the RA-GAP methodology can provide VAT compliance gap estimates on a sector-by-sector basis, which assists revenue administrations to better target compliance efforts to close the gap. In addition, the RA-GAP methodology uses a unique measurement for actual VAT revenues, which isolates changes in revenue performance that might be due to cash management (e.g., delays in refunds) from those due to actual changes in taxpayer compliance.
Mr. Eric Hutton
The IMF Fiscal Affairs Department’s Revenue Administration Gap Analysis Program (RA-GAP) assists revenue administrations from IMF member countries in monitoring taxpayer compliance through tax gap analysis. The RA-GAP methodology for estimating the VAT gap presented in this Technical Note has some distinct advantages over commonly used methodologies. By using a value-added approach to estimating potential VAT revenues, as compared to the more traditional final consumption approach used by most countries undertaking VAT gap estimation, the RA-GAP methodology can provide VAT compliance gap estimates on a sector-by-sector basis, which assists revenue administrations to better target compliance efforts to close the gap. In addition, the RA-GAP methodology uses a unique measurement for actual VAT revenues, which isolates changes in revenue performance that might be due to cash management (e.g., delays in refunds) from those due to actual changes in taxpayer compliance.
Mr. Thomas F Alexander, Ms. Claudia H Dziobek, Mr. Marco Marini, Eric Metreau, and Mr. Michael Stanger
To derive real GDP, the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) recommends a technique called double deflation. Some countries use single deflation techniques, which fail to capture important relative price changes and introduce estimation errors in official GDP growth. We simulate the effects of single deflation to the GDP data of eight countries that use double deflation. We find that errors due to single deflation can be significant, but their magnitude and direction are not systematic over time and across countries. We conclude that countries still using single deflation should move to double deflation.
Statistical Office of the European Communities, International Labour Office, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations, and World Bank

Abstract

Para la mayor parte de los ciudadanos, la compra de un inmueble residencial —una vivienda— es la operación más importante de toda la vida. Los inmuebles residenciales hogares y, al mismo tiempo, el activo más valioso. Los índices de precios de inmuebles residenciales (IPIR) son números índice que miden el ritmo al que evolucionan los precios de los inmuebles residenciales con el correr del tiempo. Los IPIR son estadísticas fundamentales no solo para los ciudadanos y los hogares del mundo entero, sino también para las autoridades económicas y monetarias. Entre otras cosas, sirven para vigilar los desequilibrios macroeconómicos. Este Manual presenta por primera vez pautas exhaustivas para la compilación de IPIR y explica en detalle los métodos y las prácticas óptimas utilizados para calcularlos. Asimismo, examina los conceptos económicos y estadísticos fundamenmetodológicas y prácticas para la compilación de este tipo de índice. El Manual está dirigido principalmente a los encargaíndices; al mismo tiempo, atiende la necesidad general de IPIR ofreciendo a todas las partes interesadas en su compilación un marco metodológico y práctico armonizado. El Manual es obra de destacados especialistas en la teoría de números índice y reconocidos expertos en la compilación de estadística de la Unión Europea, con la colaboración del Banco Mundial, la Comisión Económica de las Naciones Unidas para Europa (UNECE), el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI), la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) y la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE).

Statistical Office of the European Communities, International Labour Office, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations, and World Bank

Abstract

L'achat d'un logement est généralement l'opération financière la plus importante à laquelle un citoyen procédera au cours de sa vie. Le logement représente la plus grande proportion des dépenses des ménages, mais également leur bien le plus cher. Les indices des prix de l'immobilier résidentiel mesurent le taux de variation de ces prix au fil du temps. Ces statistiques sont essentielles non seulement pour les ménages du monde entier, mais également pour les décideurs de la politique économique et monétaire. Parmi leurs utilisations professionnelles, ils servent par exemple à surveiller les déséquilibres macroéconomiques et l'exposition aux risques du secteur financier. Ce manuel, premier du genre, présente des orientations complètes pour l'établissement des indices des prix de l'immobilier résidentiel et explique en détail les méthodes et bonnes pratiques utilisées pour leur calcul. Il examine également les fondements économiques et statistiques sous-jacents, et définit les principes qui orientent les choix méthodologiques et pratiques pour l'établissement des indices. Le manuel est destiné principalement aux statisticiens officiels chargés de produire des indices des prix de l'immobilier résidentiel, ainsi qu'à toute partie intéressée par l'établissement de tels indices, en leur fournissant un cadre méthodologique et pratique harmonisé. Le manuel des indices des prix de l'immobilier résidentiel a été rédigé par d'éminents spécialistes universitaires de la théorie des indices et par des experts de l'établissement de tels indices. Sa préparation a été coordonnée par l'Office statistique de l’Union européenne (Eurostat), avec la collaboration de la Banque mondiale, de la Commission économique des Nations Unies pour l’Europe, du Fonds monétaire international (FMI), de l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) et de l’Organisation internationale du travail (OIT).