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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department


The October 2019 Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) identifies the current key vulnerabilities in the global financial system as the rise in corporate debt burdens, increasing holdings of riskier and more illiquid assets by institutional investors, and growing reliance on external borrowing by emerging and frontier market economies. The report proposes that policymakers mitigate these risks through stricter supervisory and macroprudential oversight of firms, strengthened oversight and disclosure for institutional investors, and the implementation of prudent sovereign debt management practices and frameworks for emerging and frontier market economies.

Galen Sher
Over the last two decades, cash holdings in nonfinancial firms around the world have increased. This phenomenon is particularly concerning in Japan, where the success of Abenomics depends on a transition from stimulus-driven to self-sustaining growth based on private consumption and investment. This paper finds that Japanese nonfinancial firms have accumulated cash at the expense of investment and dividends, hampering this transition. The evidence suggests that cash accumulation is due to financial imperfections combined with rising corporate profitability and uncertainty, while corporate governance plays only a limited role. These firms have cash holdings available for investment of about 5 percent of GDP. Policy options for encouraging the use of these cash holdings include improving firms’ access to market-based financing and discouraging CEO duality.
International Monetary Fund
This 2006 Article IV Consultation highlights that Italy’s economy is enjoying a broad-based, if comparatively modest, cyclical upswing. Output is estimated to have grown by 1¾ percent in 2006—the strongest pace since the beginning of the decade. Inflation is close to that of the euro area, financial conditions are favorable, unemployment is falling, and the current account deficit is moderate. Some progress has been made on broad-based structural reform. Recent initiatives in labor contracting envision a partial rollback of earlier liberalizing reforms.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper on the Czech Republic discusses issues relating to the enterprise sector and corporate governance. This includes an overview and assessment of enterprise performance along with a discussion of the concept of corporate governance and its application in the Czech Republic, including how corporate governance practices compare in an international context. The paper discusses issues related to financial sector performance and restructuring. It also takes stock of banking sector developments and performance and reviews financial policy and supervisory challenges, including the definition of policies for bank privatization and the appropriate prudential framework.