Ruud A. de Mooij, Mr. Alexander D Klemm, and Ms. Victoria J Perry
The book describes the difficulties of the current international corporate income tax system. It starts by describing its origins and how changes, such as the development of multinational enterprises and digitalization have created fundamental problems, not foreseen at its inception. These include tax competition—as governments try to attract tax bases through low tax rates or incentives, and profit shifting, as companies avoid tax by reporting profits in jurisdictions with lower tax rates. The book then discusses solutions, including both evolutionary changes to the current system and fundamental reform options. It covers both reform efforts already under way, for example under the Inclusive Framework at the OECD, and potential radical reform ideas developed by academics.
This Selected Issues paper examines the past and present impact of personal income tax reform in Ireland. Personal income in Ireland is taxed under two distinct schemes. Changes in Ireland’s personal income taxation have been procyclical and created vulnerabilities to public finances. The reduction in personal income taxes during the boom has been broad based, albeit more for low-income taxpayers. With somewhat shrinking corporate profits during the crisis, personal income taxation was increased. The reformed income tax would reduce the vulnerability of public finances to interplay of corporate (CIT) revenues and reduce procyclicality. A robust, stable income tax system performs a stabilizing role over the business cycle, while the additional CIT revenues during booms could be saved as buffers to be used for smoothing downturns or to reduce the still high public debt. Post-2014, income taxes have been reduced again, fueling the recovery in domestic demand. The Income Tax could be further amended to enhance incentives to work, while safeguarding the progressivity of the system.
Ireland has made progress in overcoming the economic crisis. The new coalition government’s strategy for restoring sustained growth, sound public finances, and job creation has been put forward in the context of the European Union/IMF-supported program. On this basis, the government adopted a comprehensive strategy to reorganize and deleverage domestic banks, and to strengthen their capital base. Steadfast implementation of policies coupled with support from a comprehensive European plan will foster Ireland's economy.
In Lithuania, the case for complementing the on going fiscal adjustment with revenue measures is strong. In addition to supporting the adjustment, options to raise revenue need to be tailored to enhance growth and export competitiveness. International and empirical evidence suggest important scope for revenue-enhancing tax reforms in Lithuania. Lithuania is in a position to rebalance growth towards exports. Executive Directors suggest a broad tax reform strategy that could raise revenue and tax new revenue sources while supporting growth, competitiveness, and equity to substantially bolster revenues.
This Selected Issues paper examines the competitiveness of the Irish manufacturing sector. The paper highlights that in 2001, production cuts and accelerating wage growth arrested the trend improvement in external competitiveness, but the level remains high. The paper presents some medium-term fiscal scenarios. It discusses indicators of financial system soundness based on official data and publications, as well as discussions with the authorities. The paper also examines indicators on the vulnerability and solvency of the financial system and presents a brief description of supervision arrangements.
This paper focuses on various aspects of the Euro-dollar market. The market in Euro-dollars is a wide and complicated one spread over six continents and bound together by a network of cable, telex, and telephone communication. The paperwork in the market tends to confirm rather than to initiate transactions. The financial standing of the banks in the market is such that transactions are based on names and do not involve collateral and guarantees. Some Euro-dollar funds are used to finance commercial loans and other domestic transactions, either in the form of dollars or in local currency purchased with dollars. There has been a large amount of such transactions in Germany, Italy, and Japan, and smaller amounts in many other countries, including Switzerland. The role of Euro-dollars as a money market instrument has some important implications. A substantial part of the Euro-dollar pool circulates and recirculates endlessly among banks. The rapid development of the Euro-dollar market, the facilities offered by a new money market instrument, and the increased, although gentlemanly, competition among banks on both the domestic and international scene, have been accompanied by a certain amount of exuberance.