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Andy Berg, Jonathan D. Ostry, and Mr. Jeromin Zettelmeyer

Understanding the variables that contribute to sustained growth is critical for helping poor countries close the income gap with rich countries. This is the issue explored in our recent working paper titled “What Makes Growth Sustained?”

Mr. Nikola Spatafora and Ms. Irina Tytell

Emerging and developing economies have become significantly more integrated with the global economy in recent years, against the backdrop of soaring commodity prices and steadily improving institutions and policy frameworks, according to a new IMF study.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

IMF work program; de Rato in Australia, New Zealand; Improving the IEO; Swaziland, Philippines briefs; Inequality in Panama; Namibia: poverty and inequality; Gabon: post-oil era; Growth in Indian states; HIV/AIDS effect; China and India: emerging giants.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

For centuries, the United States has used imported material inputs to produce goods that it then exports. But the revolution of recent years in information technology (IT) has made it possible for U.S. firms to find overseas suppliers of services, allowing them to take advantage of cheaper foreign labor and different skills in that sector also. Between 1992 and 2000, this “Offshoring” of services by U.S. firms increased by 6.3 percent a year, on average, and it has continued to grow rapidly, spawning fears of job losses among U.S. workers. A recent IMF Working Paper by Mary Amiti and Shang-Jin Wei explores the offshoring phenomenon and finds evidence that a small number of jobs have, indeed, been lost in manufacturing industries. However, it also finds that offshoring has boosted labor productivity in the United States and that, partly because of this, there has been offsetting job creation elsewhere in the economy.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Many firm-level studies in developed and developing countries alike have found that exporters, in general, are more productive than nonexporters. But, until recently, the literature in this area had little to report on how productivity varies among different types ofmanufacturing exporters in Africa. Taye Mengistae, a Research Economist at the World Bank, and Catherine Pattillo, a Senior Economist in the IMF’s Research Department, met with the IMF Survey to discuss their Working Paper, Export Orientation and Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, which looks at this issue.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

When Poland began its transformation to a market economy in 1989, it was in a deep crisis and thought to be facing greater challenges than its central and eastern European neighbors. By late 1991, however, it had begun to recover and went on to register remarkably strong growth in the 1990s. In their IMF Working Paper The “Soaring Eagle”: Anatomy of the Polish Take-Off in the 1990s, authors Mark De Broeck and Vincent Koen explain Poland’s success, put its overall growth performance in perspective, and look at the country’s growth prospects over the next few years.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Evangelos A. Calamitsis, Director of the IMF’s African Department, recently spoke with the IMF Survey about the IMF’s work in Africa. Calamitsis, a Greek national, has headed the African Department since 1994; he holds a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.