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International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper examines the risks and structural weaknesses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The paper provides an estimate of the current account adjustment required to stabilize net foreign liabilities. It uses the external sustainability approach of the Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER) methodology for exchange rate assessment. The paper analyzes the impact of the newly introduced borrowing rules on the longer-term debt dynamics. An overview of salient facts about unemployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina is also presented.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper examines the risks and structural weaknesses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The paper provides an estimate of the current account adjustment required to stabilize net foreign liabilities. It uses the external sustainability approach of the Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER) methodology for exchange rate assessment. The paper analyzes the impact of the newly introduced borrowing rules on the longer-term debt dynamics. An overview of salient facts about unemployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina is also presented.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper on Azerbaijan Republic reports that the government has made substantial progress in dealing with energy-related subsidies. The domestic market for oil products has been tightly regulated by the government since Azerbaijan gained independence. Azerbaijan is largely self-sufficient in oil products because of its substantial endowment of exhaustible mineral deposits and existing refining capacity. Although Azerbaijan is self-sufficient in oil products, it needs to import about 3 billion cubic meters (bcm) of natural gas annually to meet its domestic consumption demand of 7 bcm.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper for the Russian Federation reviews trends in private capital flows to Russia by decomposing the flows into its subcomponents. Russia became a net lender to the international banking system, as a complement to the prolonged period of large current account surpluses. The nonbank corporate sector in Russia began to have better access to both bank and nonbank sources of external finance, with improving investor perceptions and a favorable external environment. The relatively lackluster performance of equity issuances and foreign direct investment has been an outcome of both global and local factors.

International Monetary Fund

Luxembourg's impressive growth performance has been accompanied by regional specialization of production, high labor mobility, export-propelled growth, and the dominance of regional growth fluctuations. Luxembourg's public pension system faces the challenges of population aging and Luxembourg's small, open, and highly specialized economy. Luxembourg's labor market performance holds a seeming paradox, favorable labor market outcomes are coupled with rigid labor market institutions. The supervision of cross-border financial activities raises the difficult challenge of obtaining a complete, consolidated view of the operations of international banking institutions.