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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
The pandemic hit the Chilean economy while it was recovering from the 2019 social unrest. The authorities’ swift and strong economic policy efforts and Chile’s very strong institutional frameworks helped buffer the economic and social consequences. The ongoing economic recovery continues to be supported by ample policy stimulus, a rapid vaccination process, well-anchored inflation expectations, a resilient export base, and continued market confidence.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
COVID-19 has taken a severe toll on Colombia’s society and economy—including over 60,000 deaths and over 5 million jobs temporarily lost in Colombia’s largest recession on record. A gradual but uneven recovery led by private domestic demand and manufacturing is underway, but services continue to be weak. While the economy had remained resilient before the pandemic owing to very strong policy frameworks, economic activity is not expected to return to pre-pandemic levels until the end of 2022.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Selected Issues
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
COVID-19 has taken a severe social and economic toll, including almost 60,000 deaths. With over 5 million jobs temporarily affected, Colombia recorded its largest recession on record. Since 2020H2, an uneven recovery with intermittent growth has been underway, led by private domestic demand. Staff expects only a gradual recovery in 2021 with economic activity not expected to return to pre-pandemic levels until the second half of 2022. Vaccinations began in February with plans to effectively cover the adult population. However, both external and domestic risks remain skewed to the downside.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Covid-19 has exacted a tragic human, social, and economic toll on Mexico. Over 85,000 lives were lost; unofficial estimates are notably higher. Of 12 million workers that lost their jobs, most of whom came from the informal sector with a limited safety net, over 4 million remain out of the workforce. The working poverty rate jumped to 48 percent. After a historic drop in output, there has been a trade-led bounce in manufacturing. But domestic demand is weak, as is services activity that employs most of the workforce. Staff projects the economy to shrink by 9 percent this year, followed by a gradual recovery. It could take years for employment and incomes to return to pre-crisis levels, compounding the long-standing challenge of achieving strong and inclusive growth.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
The current FCL arrangement for Colombia was approved in May 2020. Colombia was cited for its very strong policy frameworks—anchored by a flexible exchange rate, a credible inflation-targeting regime, effective financial sector supervision and regulation, and a structural fiscal rule—and a track record of very strong policy implementation that served as a basis for the economy’s resilience prior to the Covid-19 pandemic.