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José Garrido, Ms. Yan Liu, Joseph Sommer, and Juan Sebastián Viancha
This note explores the interactions between new technologies with key areas of commercial law and potential legal changes to respond to new developments in technology and businesses. Inspired by the Bali Fintech Agenda, this note argues that country authorities need to closely examine the adequacy of their legal frameworks to accommodate the use of new technologies and implement necessary legal reform so as to reap the benefits of fintech while mitigating risks. Given the cross-border nature of new technologies, international cooperation among all relevant stakeholders is critical. The note is structured as follows: Section II describes the relations between technology, business, and law, Section III discusses the nature and functions of commercial law; Section IV provides a brief overview of developments in fintech; Section V examines the interaction between technology and commercial law; and Section VI concludes with a preliminary agenda for legal reform to accommodate the use of new technologies.
Sebastian Beer, Maria Delgado Coelho, and Sebastien Leduc
We analyze the impact of exchange of information in tax matters in reducing international tax evasion between 1995 and 2018. Based on bilateral deposit data for 39 reporting countries and more than 200 counterparty jurisdictions, we find that recent automatic exchange of information frameworks reduced foreign-owned deposits in offshore jurisdictions by an average of 25 percent. This effect is statistically significant and, as expected, much larger than the effect of information exchange upon request, which is not significant. Furthermore, to test the sensitivity of our findings, we estimate countries’ offshore status and the impact of information exchange simultaneously using a finite mixture model. The results confirm that automatic (and not upon request) exchange of information impacts cross-border deposits in offshore jurisdictions, which are characterized by low income tax rates and strong financial secrecy.
International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.
This Technical Note evaluates the state of Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein has made significant steps and achieved considerable progress since the last mutual evaluation, particularly in bringing its legal framework more closely in line with the Financial Action Task Force recommendations, consolidating an overall robust institutional framework for combating money laundering and terrorist financing and moving toward greater transparency. Domestic cooperation is robust, and key stakeholders enjoy the trust of the financial and nonfinancial sectors. However, effective implementation is uneven and not always optimal. Liechtenstein’s proactive use of the in rem regime of confiscation of criminal proceeds has proven to be quite effective.
International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.

This Technical Note evaluates the state of Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein has made significant steps and achieved considerable progress since the last mutual evaluation, particularly in bringing its legal framework more closely in line with the Financial Action Task Force recommendations, consolidating an overall robust institutional framework for combating money laundering and terrorist financing and moving toward greater transparency. Domestic cooperation is robust, and key stakeholders enjoy the trust of the financial and nonfinancial sectors. However, effective implementation is uneven and not always optimal. Liechtenstein’s proactive use of the in rem regime of confiscation of criminal proceeds has proven to be quite effective.

International Monetary Fund
St. Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) is exposed to money laundering (ML) and financing of terrorism (FT) risk related to drug trafficking and international criminal groups. The financing of terrorism has also been criminalized and is largely in conformity with the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (SFT) Convention. The legal and institutional framework regarding the cross-border transportation of cash and bearer instruments is largely in place. The preventive measures regime covers most of the financial and designated nonfinancial businesses and professions (DNFBP) sectors as required under the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Recommendations.
International Monetary Fund
Liechtenstein has a GDP of US$5.2 billion, of which 40 percent comes from industry and 30 percent from financial services. Currently, 15 banks operate in Liechtenstein (one additional bank is in the process of being wound down without loss to the depositors). The market is highly concentrated with the three largest banks accounting for 90 percent of the total banking balance sheet size; 86 percent of assets under management; 89 percent of operating profits before tax, and 63 percent of employment in the banking sector.
International Monetary Fund
The financial sector in Liechtenstein provides primarily wealth-management services, including banking, trust, other fiduciary services, investment management, and life insurance. The establishment of the Financial Market Authority (FMA) as the unified, independent regulator in January 2005 is a huge step for the financial services industry. The FMA and other authorities have been successful in implementing most of the recommendations provided in the earlier 2002 IMF assessment. The authorities and the industry continue to make significant efforts to strengthen the antimoney laundering regime, though there is still work ahead.
International Monetary Fund

The financial sector in Liechtenstein provides primarily wealth-management services, including banking, trust, other fiduciary services, investment management, and life insurance. The establishment of the Financial Market Authority (FMA) as the unified, independent regulator in January 2005 is a huge step for the financial services industry. The FMA and other authorities have been successful in implementing most of the recommendations provided in the earlier 2002 IMF assessment. The authorities and the industry continue to make significant efforts to strengthen the antimoney laundering regime, though there is still work ahead.

International Monetary Fund

Liechtenstein has a GDP of US$5.2 billion, of which 40 percent comes from industry and 30 percent from financial services. Currently, 15 banks operate in Liechtenstein (one additional bank is in the process of being wound down without loss to the depositors). The market is highly concentrated with the three largest banks accounting for 90 percent of the total banking balance sheet size; 86 percent of assets under management; 89 percent of operating profits before tax, and 63 percent of employment in the banking sector.

International Monetary Fund
Liechtenstein’s financial sector business has created money laundering risks. The investigative powers of the law enforcement authorities are comprehensive enough to enable them to conduct serious investigations in an effective way. Money laundering is criminalized broadly in line with the international standard. Liechtenstein relies on its trust service providers to obtain, verify, and retain records of the beneficial ownership and control of legal persons. Liechtenstein should conduct a full review of its laws concerning non-profit organizations to assess their adequacy for combating the financing of terrorism.