Hui Jin, La-Bhus Fah Jirasavetakul, and Baoping Shang
This paper, using Moldova as an example, presents a systematic approach to assess the efficiency and equity of public education spending, identify sources of inefficiencies and inequality, and formulate potential reform options. The analytical framework combines international benchmarking with country-specific analysis—such as microeconomic analysis based on household survey data—and can provide important insights into diagnosing and reforming education systems. The analysis finds significant scope to improve both efficiency and equity of the education sector in Moldova. Potential reform measures include further consolidating the oversized school network, reducing overstaffing, and better targeting government subsidies. The current remuneration policy could also be improved to attract high quality teachers and incentivize performance.
This Economic Development Document highlights the Moldova 2020 National Development Strategy focus on producing a social and economic impact on various development priorities. Poverty reduction has progressed significantly during the past eight years: the national poverty rate decreased from 26.4 percent in 2008 to 9.6 percent in 2015. Remittances by emigrants and higher agricultural income, salaries, and social benefits were the major drivers of poverty reduction. The means-tested social assistance program had a significant impact. This social aid has proved to be the most efficient social protection against poverty; however, social support programs that are not means tested are ineffective.
This Joint Staff Advisory Note focuses on Republic Of Moldova’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and National Development Strategy (NDS). The NDS unifies in one document the government’s poverty reduction strategy and development vision. The NDS argues that Moldova needs to add productivity-enhancing investment and exports as growth drivers to its traditional consumption-based growth model. The strong pace of growth observed in the mid-2000s was driven by domestic consumption fuelled by remittances. The NDS calls for a shift from the current consumption-based growth model toward one based on raising investments, increasing productivity and competitiveness, developing export industries, and promoting a knowledge-based society.
This paper discusses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and National Development Strategy (NDS) for the Republic of Moldova. The NDS “Moldova 2020” presents a vision of cohesive long-term sustainable economic development based on a diagnostic study of constraints to economic development. Areas such as health, culture, social protection, and environmental protection are crucial for the country’s sustainable development. The focus of the NDS is to increase the budget coverage of adequate policies in these sectors as a result of accelerated economic development. Such a focus also requires the sustainability of foreign assistance currently provided to the country.
The progress made by Moldova toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has not been uniform since 2007. Domestic economic and political crises are likely to undermine the achievement of several MDG targets set for 2010 and 2015. The goals were to reduce extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal access to general secondary education, promote gender equality and empower woman, and so on. After growing dramatically in 1998–1999, poverty in Moldova began to decline in 2000. Addressing the environmental challenges and risks is imperative for Moldova.
The economic growth of Moldova continued to be strong during the Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (EGPRSP) implementation period despite external shocks. Macroeconomic management remained prudent in reducing public external debt. The government has approved National Development Strategy (NSD) (PRSP II), which aims to unify the reduction strategy and development vision. The Joint Staff Advisory Note (JSAN) emphasized the need for strengthening strategy and its effective implementation. It also stressed the need to maintain a macroeconomic framework, ensure better strategic linkages between annual budgets, medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), restructuring of public finances, and strengthening the target efficiency of social assistance.
This paper reviews the Poverty Reduction Strategy Annual Evaluation Report 2005 for Moldova. Economic growth and income redistribution policies promoted in the context of Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EGPRS) implementation contributed to higher incomes and improved access of population to social services, which led to higher living standards and poverty reduction in Moldova. During 2002–04, poverty rates decreased by 14.5 percentage points. By 2004, only 26.5 percent of the population of Moldova was poor. The most essential decrease took place in 2002–03.
This paper examines Moldova’s Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (EGPRSP) covering 2004–06. The EGPRSP has the potential to become an effective tool for continuous strategic planning, and for providing for the prioritization of strategic objectives and the implementation of related actions. It is also a tool for efficient and transparent allocation of available resources, and for the harmonization of medium- and long-term objectives. The EGPRSP also represents a framework for the coordination of sectoral strategies, directing them toward the accomplishment of the higher-level EGPRSP objectives.
This paper assesses changes in the size and scope of government in 24 transition economies. Whereas these governments have retrenched in terms of public expenditures in relation to GDP, as well as public employment as a share of population, some indicators suggest that size remains high (e.g., rising indebtedness, a heavy regulatory burden, and prevalence of noncash transactions). At the same time, the scope of government activities-although evolving-has not necessarily become appropriate. This paper provides some recommendations for aligning the scope of government with the increasing market orientation of these economies.