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Ruud A. de Mooij, Mr. Alexander D Klemm, and Ms. Victoria J Perry


The book describes the difficulties of the current international corporate income tax system. It starts by describing its origins and how changes, such as the development of multinational enterprises and digitalization have created fundamental problems, not foreseen at its inception. These include tax competition—as governments try to attract tax bases through low tax rates or incentives, and profit shifting, as companies avoid tax by reporting profits in jurisdictions with lower tax rates. The book then discusses solutions, including both evolutionary changes to the current system and fundamental reform options. It covers both reform efforts already under way, for example under the Inclusive Framework at the OECD, and potential radical reform ideas developed by academics.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper evaluates features of the Peruvian tax system that may have contributed to weak revenue growth, as well as reforms to strengthen the tax system. Using data on domestic tax collection in conjunction with cross-country data on tax rates, collection and tax expenditures, we attempt to shed light on the factors that distinguish tax revenue mobilization in Peru from other countries in the region. The paper also discusses recent reforms in tax policy and tax administration, and present advice for continued progress in these areas. Elimination of multiple tax regimes for small businesses can provide a boost to revenues from corporate taxes. An IMF technical evaluation of the small business tax regimes finds that a rationalization of the two existing regimes into one with the same marginal rate as the general regime will result in revenue gains of around 0.14 percent of GDP. There is ample room to increase the contribution of excises and property taxes to overall tax revenues. Relative to the regional average, Peru will continue to lag peer economies even if the current reform performs at full potential. This suggests room for further policy reforms to bring excise taxes in line with the levels of comparable economies.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
The government of the Kyrgyz Republic is determined to consolidate its finances over the coming years. This note describes the main elements of the tax regime in the Kyrgyz Republic, looks into tax incentives, and provides some reform options to raise revenues. The second note is on monetary policy in the Kyrgyz Republic, which faces challenges with respect to formulation and efficacy given the low monetization, the shallow financial system, high dollarization, and a predominantly cash-based economy.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper on Poland analyzes tax reform in the country. It highlights that in common with many countries, Poland’s personal income tax is based on a definition of global personal income, though some income sources (such as dividends and interest income) are taxed under separate schedules. In addition, agriculture, forestry, and inheritances are taxed under separate laws. The paper presents a medium-term perspective for capital flows to Poland. It highlights that Poland has developed a reputation for sound macroeconomic policies and openness both to trade and financial flows.