International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Jamaica’s Sixth Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement (SBA). All quantitative performance criteria, indicative targets, and the structural benchmark at end-June were met, marking a successful completion of the SBA. Discussions centered on policies to lock-in macroeconomic stability and advance supply-side reforms to promote inclusive growth, including: building institutions and advancing fiscal reforms to safeguard and sustain economic stability and debt reduction; improving monetary operations and policy transmission; and bolstering financial inclusion, access to credit, and formality. Most structural policy commitments are on track, although some key reforms to public sector transformation, the compensation framework for public employees, legislation to establish a fiscal council, and creating a special resolution regime for financial institutions have been delayed due to capacity constraints and the need to build stakeholder support for these reforms. Important gains have been made in the oversight of financial institutions.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper examines the degree to which inflation co-moves between India and a panel of countries in Asia. The paper shows that the considerable co-movement in headline inflation rates between India and Nepal is driven almost exclusively by food-inflation co-movement. By contrast, the role for inflation spillovers emanating from India in driving non-food inflation in Nepal appears limited. The implication is that Nepal should rely on domestic monetary policy rather than stable inflation in India to achieve stable domestic inflation. The main takeaway from the results is that food inflation co-movement between India and other countries is higher in cases where the co-movement in rainfall deviations from seasonal norms is highest. Since core inflation co-movement is weak, idiosyncratic domestic factors such as economic slack, exchange-rate movements, and differing degrees of passthrough from food- and energy-price shocks play an important role. This finding is critically important for monetary policy, especially since domestic policy is primarily effective only in controlling core inflation. Thus, domestic monetary policy needs to be calibrated to domestic inflationary pressures—Nepal cannot necessarily rely on stable inflation in India to achieve stable domestic inflation.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper presents an assessment of the stability of the financial system in New Zealand. Imbalances in the housing market, banks’ concentrated exposures to the dairy sector, and their high reliance on wholesale offshore funding are the key macro-financial vulnerabilities. The banking sector has significant exposure to real estate and agriculture, is relatively dependent on foreign funding, and is dominated by four Australian subsidiaries. A sharp decline in the real estate market, a reversal of the recent recovery in dairy prices, deterioration in global economic conditions, and tightening in financial markets would adversely impact the system. Despite these vulnerabilities, the banking system is resilient to severe shocks. Strengthening the macroprudential framework is important.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper presents an assessment IMF report on implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO) principles in Canada. It highlights that developing an integrated and robust view of risks to support supervisory actions remains a key challenge. The IMF report suggests that the securities regulators should continue to take steps to ensure timely decision making in policy formulation. However, the current governance arrangements, based on a consensus building approach across several entities, is expected to affect timeliness of decision making.
The Belgian financial system is relatively large, concentrated, and interconnected and has a high level of compliance with the Basel Core Principles (BCPs) for effective banking supervision. The National Bank of Belgium (NBB) deploys high-quality supervisory practices and has clear lines of accountability, transparency, and separate funding when acting in its supervisory capacity. The Belgian authorities have established a Resolution Fund (RF) vesting it with powers to take preventative measures and to facilitate resolution procedures.
Effective cross-border financial surveillance requires the monitoring of direct and indirect systemic linkages. This paper illustrates how network analysis could make a significant contribution in this regard by simulating different credit and funding shocks to the banking systems of a number of selected countries. After that, we show that the inclusion of risk transfers could modify the risk profile of entire financial systems, and thus an enriched simulation algorithm able to account for risk transfers is proposed. Finally, we discuss how some of the limitations of our simulations are a reflection of existing information and data gaps, and thus view these shortcomings as a call to improve the collection and analysis of data on cross-border financial exposures.
This technical note highlights the financial sector assessment program update of Austria with factual update for effective banking supervision. Financial sector regulation and supervision should be conducted in the general public interest. Although authorities have acted effectively in recent cases of major problems, it is recommended that, within the legal framework in place, a set of practical provisions and procedures be elaborated for an orderly exit in case of failures and other stress situations.
This paper discusses a Detailed Assessment of the Observance of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies (MFPT Code)—Banking Supervision for Italy. Banca d’Italia (BI) notes the assessment’s recognition of the very high degree of compliance of the Italian banking supervisory system with MFPT Code. The assessment highlights positive features as the extensive information on banking supervision made publicly available through the annual report and other modes. BI cooperates with other domestic and foreign financial agencies in day-to-day activities through exchange of information and coordinated action.
This paper discusses a Detailed Assessment of the Observance of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies—Securities Regulation for Italy. The paper discusses that in the area of securities regulation, the objectives and responsibilities of the two supervisory authorities, namely Consob and the Banca d’Italia (BI), and the modalities of cooperation between them, are clearly established in the 1998 Consolidated Law. An area where further clarity may be warranted concerns the practical modalities of exchanging information with other domestic institutions.
Mr. Andrew J Tiffin, Mr. Christian B. Mulder, and Mr. Charalambos Christofides
This paper examines the relationship between adherence to international standards of good practice in policy-making and two key indicators of access to capital markets and the cost of this access: spreads and sovereign ratings. In contrast to other work, this study reviews a broad set of indicators for adherence to international standards. The estimations are conducted for emerging market economies, and pay particular attention to issues of persistence in spreads and ratings and nonlinearities in the relationships. The main finding confirms the expectation that standards are indeed relevant. Accounting standards and property rights are especially important for spreads, in addition to data transparency (SDDS subscription). Accounting standards and corruption are especially important in explaining ratings in addition to trade protectiveness (not a standard).