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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Growth in sub-Saharan Africa has recovered relative to 2016, but the momentum is weak and per capita incomes are expected to barely increase. Further, vulnerabilities have risen in many countries, adding to the urgency of implementing the fiscal consolidations planned in most countries and with stepped up efforts to strengthen growth.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Growth in sub-Saharan Africa has recovered relative to 2016, but the momentum is weak and per capita incomes are expected to barely increase. Further, vulnerabilities have risen in many countries, adding to the urgency of implementing the fiscal consolidations planned in most countries and with stepped up efforts to strengthen growth.

Rui Xu and Kaiji Gong
We analyze the impact of rising import competition from China on U.S. innovative activities. Using Compustat data, we find that import competition induces R&D expenditures to be reallocated towards more productive and more profitable firms within each industry. Such reallocation effect has the potential to offset the average drop in firm-level R&D identified in the previous literature. Indeed, our quantitative analysis shows no adverse impact of import competition on aggregate R&D expenditures. Taking the analysis beyond manufacturing, we find that import competition has led to reallocation of researchers towards booming service industries, including business and repairs, personal services, and financial services.
International Monetary Fund
The statistical appendices present the following details for Brunei Darussalam: Nominal GDP and quarterly nominal GDP by economic activity, nominal GDP and quarterly nominal GDP by expenditure, quarterly composition of nominal GDP and composition of nominal GDP by activity, real GDP and quarterly real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, oil and gas production and sales, consumer price index, imports and exports by commodities, country destination exchange rates, energy sector, financial soundness indicators, balance of payments, depository corporations survey, Brunei currency, and the monetary board survey.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
Mr. Andrei A Levchenko and Mr. Julian Di Giovanni
This paper examines the mechanisms through which output volatility is related to trade openness using an industry-level panel dataset of manufacturing production and trade. The main results are threefold. First, sectors more open to international trade are more volatile. Second, trade is accompanied by increased specialization. Third, sectors that are more open are less correlated with the rest of the economy. The point estimates indicate that each of the three effects has an appreciable impact on aggregate volatility. Added together they imply that the relationship between trade openness and overall volatility is positive and economically significant.
International Monetary Fund
The paper discusses the estimates and projections of Brunei Darussalam's nominal GDP and quarterly nominal GDP as per economic activity; growth in real GDP by expenditure and economic activity; details of oil and gas production and sales; composition of government revenue, expenditure, and budget balance; and quarterly government expenditure and budget balance; imports by country of origin, destination, and commodity; exchange rates, etc.
International Monetary Fund
Statistical details of gross domestic product by expenditure and sector, industrial production, agricultural and industrial production indices, agricultural production by sector, nominal wages by sector, employment by sector, unemployment, unpaid leave, and part-time employment, central government operations, local government operations, accounts of the national bank, monetary survey, composition and direction of trade are listed. The appendix includes basic data such as area, population, life expectancy for both male and female, infant mortality rate, hospital beds, and primary and secondary education rates.
Mr. Rudolfs Bems
This paper shows that aggregate investment expenditure shares on tradable and nontradable goods are very similar across countries and regions. Furthermore, the two expenditure shares have remained close to constant over time, with the average expenditure share on nontradables varying between 0.54-0.62 over the 1960-2004 period. These empirical findings offer a new restriction for two-sector models of the aggregate economy. Combined with the fact that the relative price of nontradables correlates positively with income and exhibits large differences across space and time, our findings suggest that tradable and nontradable goods in investment can be modeled using the Cobb-Douglas aggregator.