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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Denmark’s insurance sector is highly developed with a particularly high penetration and density in the life sector. Traditionally, work-related life insurance and pension savings are offered as a combined package, and life insurance companies dominate the market for mandatory pension schemes for employees. The high penetration explains the overall size of the insurance sector, which exceeds those of peers from other Nordic countries and various other EU member states. Assets managed by the insurance industry amounted to 146 percent of the GDP at end-2018, compared to 72 percent for the EU average.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper presents an assessment of the level of implementation of the IOSCO (International Organization of Securities Commissions) objectives and principles in the Russian Federation. Some of the most recent regulatory changes in the Russian Federation are clearly based on international standards. In other areas, further initiatives will be required. These include conflicts of interest identification and improving standards of management in professional market participants. It will also require the creation of legal gateways which will enable supervisors with the necessary skills sets to provide guidance as to what the Central Bank of the Russian Federation’s (CBR) reasonable expectations are on a range of issues. CBR also faces a major challenge in enforcing the regulatory regime and will need additional resources.
Mr. Robert M Heath and Evrim Bese Goksu
The G-20 Data Gaps Initiative (DGI), which aimed at addressing the information needs that were revealed by the 2007/2008 global financial crisis, concluded its first phase and started a second phase (DGI-2) with the endorsement of G-20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in September 2015. The DGI-2 recommendations maintain the continuity of DGI-1 but reflecting the evolving policy needs focus more on datasets that support the monitoring of risks in the financial sector and the analysis of the inter-linkages across the economic and financial systems. The paper presents the DGI as an overarching initiative, bringing together various statistical frameworks for a complete picture of the economic and financial system to support the work of policy makers.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper discusses key findings of the Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Insurance Core Principles on the United States. The assessment finds a reasonable level of observance of the Insurance Core Principles. There are many areas of strength, including at state level the powerful capacity for financial analysis with peer group review and challenge through the processes of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. Lead state regulation is developing and a network of international supervisory colleges has been put in place. Key areas for development include the valuation standard of the state regulators, especially for life insurance, and group capital standards.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Selected Issues paper discusses the designing and implementing of Kuwait’s fiscal policy for the medium term. Fiscal policy has a major role to play in supporting macrostability and diversification. The fiscal strategy design and implementation on a yearly basis are based on a few key areas such as determining targets or ceilings for major fiscal parameters for a three-year rolling framework with binding next budget year and indicative two outer years, establishing a clear process for expressing policy objectives and their link to expenditure, etc. The illustrative budget sequencing with the fiscal strategy spearheading medium-term fiscal policymaking and linked to the annual budget process would support fiscal policy implementation.
Mr. Stijn Claessens and Ms. Laura E. Kodres
We identify current challenges for creating stable, yet efficient financial systems using lessons from recent and past crises. Reforms need to start from three tenets: adopting a system-wide perspective explicitly aimed at addressing market failures; understanding and incorporating into regulations agents’ incentives so as to align them better with societies’ goals; and acknowledging that risks of crises will always remain, in part due to (unknown) unknowns – be they tipping points, fault lines, or spillovers. Corresponding to these three tenets, specific areas for further reforms are identified. Policy makers need to resist, however, fine-tuning regulations: a “do not harm” approach is often preferable. And as risks will remain, crisis management needs to be made an integral part of system design, not relegated to improvisation after the fact.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper presents an assessment IMF report on implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO) principles in Canada. It highlights that developing an integrated and robust view of risks to support supervisory actions remains a key challenge. The IMF report suggests that the securities regulators should continue to take steps to ensure timely decision making in policy formulation. However, the current governance arrangements, based on a consensus building approach across several entities, is expected to affect timeliness of decision making.
Mr. Luca Errico, Artak Harutyunyan, Ms. Elena Loukoianova, Richard Walton, Ms. Yevgeniya Korniyenko, Hanan AbuShanab, and Mr. Hyun S Shin
This paper presents an approach to understanding the shadow banking system in the United States using a new Global Flow of Funds (GFF) conceptual framework developed by the IMF’s Statistics Department (STA). The GFF uses external stock and flow matrices to map claims between sector-location pairs. Our findings highlight the large positions and gross flows of the U.S. banking sector (ODCs) and its interconnectedness with the banking sectors in the Euro area and the United Kingdom. European counterparties are large holders of U.S. other financial corporations (OFCs) debt securities. We explore the relationship between credit to domestic entities and the growth of non-core liabilities. We find that external debt liabilities of the financial sector are procyclical and are closely aligned with domestic credit growth.