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Ruud A. de Mooij, Mr. Alexander D Klemm, and Ms. Victoria J Perry


The book describes the difficulties of the current international corporate income tax system. It starts by describing its origins and how changes, such as the development of multinational enterprises and digitalization have created fundamental problems, not foreseen at its inception. These include tax competition—as governments try to attract tax bases through low tax rates or incentives, and profit shifting, as companies avoid tax by reporting profits in jurisdictions with lower tax rates. The book then discusses solutions, including both evolutionary changes to the current system and fundamental reform options. It covers both reform efforts already under way, for example under the Inclusive Framework at the OECD, and potential radical reform ideas developed by academics.

International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept., International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department, International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, Review Department, and International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper reviews the Fund’s policy on multiple currency practices (MCPs). There remain strong economic and legal reasons to retain a policy on MCPs. The over-arching aim of the review is to make the policy and its application more effective. Based on this review, the paper proposes initial considerations for reforming features of the policy that have created challenges. • Clarifying the concept of “official action” to focus on measures that segment FX markets. • Eliminating potentiality. • Updating the threshold for permissible FX spreads. • Adjusting approval policies. • Reviewing links with capital transactions. • Considering merits of a remedial framework.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2018 Article IV Consultation highlights that stability-oriented macroeconomic policies and progress on structural reforms continue to bear fruit in India. Following disruptions related to the November 2016 currency exchange initiative and the July 2017 goods and services tax rollout, growth slowed to 6.7 percent in FY2017/18, but a recovery is under way led by an investment pickup. Headline inflation averaged 3.6 percent in FY2017/18, a 17-year low, reflecting low food prices on a return to normal monsoon rainfall, agriculture sector reforms, subdued domestic demand, and currency appreciation. Growth is forecast to rise to 7.3 percent in FY2018/19 and 7.5 percent in FY2019/20, on strengthening investment and robust private consumption.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This Selected Issues paper on the Republic of Moldova was prepared by a staff team of the International Monetary Fund as background documentation for the periodic consultation with the member country. It is based on the information available at the time it was completed on September 17, 2012. The views expressed in this document are those of the staff team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the government of the Republic of Moldova or the Executive Board of the IMF.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper on Poland analyzes tax reform in the country. It highlights that in common with many countries, Poland’s personal income tax is based on a definition of global personal income, though some income sources (such as dividends and interest income) are taxed under separate schedules. In addition, agriculture, forestry, and inheritances are taxed under separate laws. The paper presents a medium-term perspective for capital flows to Poland. It highlights that Poland has developed a reputation for sound macroeconomic policies and openness both to trade and financial flows.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper discusses achievement and failure of science in increasing world animal production. The paper highlights that the application of modern animal production technology is virtually confined to Western Europe, to the North American continent, to Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. The new technologies are not yet used in other parts of the world. Hardly more than a handful of their farmers have any knowledge or understanding of production methods commonplace in highly developed countries.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper presents a report on existing international banking and credit facilities in the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) region. The report presents a background formation on the importance of intraregional trade and payments, the exchange systems of the countries concerned, and banking relationships within the region. Balance of payments statistics of the ECAFE countries are not available in a form that would permit the calculation of intraregional payments for both trade and nontrade transactions. As far as nontrade transactions are concerned, there is reason to believe that the intraregional proportion is low. Although several countries of the ECAFE region have bilateral payments agreements with countries outside the region, especially with Eastern European countries, little of the trade among countries of the region is conducted under bilateral payments agreements. A mandatory system of clearing may be established by mutual agreement of the participating members. Alternatively, each member could retain the freedom to decide whether it would require all transactions to be settled through the clearing union or would leave it to traders to choose what they regard as the most advantageous method of settlement.