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Mr. Saleh M. Nsouli, Mr. Mounir Rached, and Mr. Norbert Funke
This paper reviews the issues involved in determining the appropriate speed of adjustment and the sequencing of economic reforms, focusing on considerations relevant to policymakers. It points out that the debate between the protagonists of a high-speed approach and those favoring a gradualist approach is based primarily on the weights given to adjustment costs, policy credibility, reform feasibility, and risk assessment. It underscores the importance of appropriate sequencing and the impact of sequencing on the speed of adjustment and reforms. The paper concludes by highlighting factors that policymakers should consider when selecting their approach toward speed and sequencing.
International Monetary Fund
The extensive growth model introduced under central planning in the 1950s resulted in rapid industrialization and initially high growth. The efforts to bring the banking system on a sound footing following the 1996–97 crises have hardened budget constraints, but they have yet to result in a reorientation of banking sector activities toward private sector lending. The following statistical data are presented in detail: industrial sector, services by branches, income accounts, financial performance of state-owned enterprises, monetary survey, the exchange rates, and so on.
International Monetary Fund
Tunisia showed strong economic performance and social achievements owing to its prudent macroeconomic policies. Executive Directors commended this development, and underscored the importance of complementing the trade liberalization with the European Union with comprehensive trade and price liberalization measures, and sustained structural reforms. They appreciated the achievement of price stability, and noted the dual role played by incomes and monetary policies. They welcomed the substantial improvements in the quality and dissemination of statistical information, and the country's subscription to the Special Data Dissemination Standard.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix examines the possible policy responses of Algeria to the reduction of fiscal revenue and the deterioration of the external balance, and more generally the negative wealth effect on the country, stemming from the decline in oil prices. The paper highlights that in policymaking, a distinction between permanent and temporary shocks is necessarily blurred and does not contribute to working out pragmatic solutions. The paper also examines the privatization process in Algeria.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in the Republic of Kazakhstan during 1993–97. During 1993–94, price liberalization was virtually completed, most of the restrictions on foreign trade were eliminated, and a new currency with a unified rate was introduced. At the same time, state orders were phased out and privatization initiated. Since early 1996, the authorities have accelerated privatization, extending it to many large enterprises. Kazakhstan has also taken major steps toward banking and financial sector reform, through withdrawal of bank licenses, bank consolidation, introduction and enforcement of prudential regulations, and enhanced supervision.
International Monetary Fund
This paper describes economic developments in Argentina during the 1990s. Since the implementation of the Convertibility Plan in early 1991, real GDP grew by more than 7 percent a year (or by a cumulative 35 percent over the years 1991–94), after stagnating for more than a decade. At the same time, consumer price inflation, which had peaked at 3,000 percent in 1989, declined to 4 percent (average) in 1994. Gross fixed investment recovered to nearly 20 percent of GDP by 1994, reflecting a real growth rate of 22 percent a year during the period.
Mr. Dimitri G Demekas and Mr. Mohsin S. Khan
With the start of the process of its transition to a market economy in early 1990, Romania joined the ranks of other reforming Eastern European countries. At the starting point of its reform program, however, Romania was in a deep economic and institutional crisis and had no experience in even modest attempts to reform its economy. This paper outlines the main characteristics of the Romanian economic system before the reform, and presents the evolution of the reform program, as well as its achievements in the first year or so since it was launched.