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International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept., International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept., and International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department
This paper proposes a further six-month extension of the period for members to consent to an increase in their quotas under the Fourteenth General Review of Quotas ("Fourteenth Review") through June 28, 2019.
International Monetary Fund
In line with a framework introduced in 2012 for addressing excessive delays in the completion of Article IV consultations, the following table lists the IMF members for which the Article IV consultation has been delayed by more than 18 months at March 15, 2016. The delay is counted past the stipulated date for the consultation plus any applicable grace period. There are no countries for which the mandatory financial stability assessments are delayed by more than 18 months at March 15, 2016.
International Monetary Fund
The HIPC Initiative and MDRI are nearly complete, with 36 countries having already reached the completion point under the HIPC Initiative. Chad, in April 2015, is the latest country to reach the completion point. Debt relief under the Initiative has alleviated debt burdens substantially in recipient countries and has enabled them to increase their poverty-reducing expenditure by over one and a half percentage points of GDP between 2001 and 2014. Creditor participation in the HIPC Initiative has been strong amongst the multilateral and Paris Club creditors; however participation from other creditor groups still needs to be strengthened. The total cost of debt relief to creditors under the HIPC Initiative is currently estimated to be US$74.8 billion, while the costs to the four multilateral creditors providing relief under the MDRI is estimated at US$41.6 billion in end-2014 present value terms.
International Monetary Fund
This Staff Report Lists IMF Member Countries with Delays in Completion of Article IV Consultations over 18 Months or Mandatory Financial Stability Assessment over 18 Months, prepared by IMF staff and completed on January 28, 2015.
International Monetary Fund
The following table lists the IMF member countries for which the Article IV consultation or the mandatory financial stability assessment has been delayed by more than 18 months. The delay is counted past the scheduled expected date for conclusion, plus any applicable grace period.
International Monetary Fund
The overall fiscal position improved and the reduction in domestic arrears was triple the program target. The direct impact of the global financial crisis on Djibouti has been limited. The financial system has not been affected by the global crisis, and capital adequacy has improved slightly despite increased competition. GDP growth remained strong in 2008, and inflation decelerated during the fourth quarter. The risk of external debt distress remains high. Banks remain profitable and have not been affected by the global financial crisis.
Mr. Joannes Mongardini and Mr. Alexander Chudik
This paper presents a methodology to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates (ERER) for Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries using both single-country and panel estimation techniques. The limited data set hinders single-country estimation for most countries in the sample, but panel estimates are statistically and economically significant, and generally robust to different estimation techniques. The results replicate well the historical experience for a number of countries in the sample. Panel techniques can also be used to derive out of sample estimates for countries with a more limited data set.
Mr. Stijn Claessens and Erik Feijen

The Two Faces of Financial Globalization looks at the phenomenon of rising cross-border financial flows-credited with boosting growth in developing countries but also blamed for the emerging market crises of the late 1980s and 1990s. The lead article puts together a framework for analyzing studies about the costs and benefits of financial globalization. Other articles look at the worldwide allocation of capital, the role of finance in macroeconomic management, and changes in the investor base. "Picture This" illustrates the growth and direction of capital flows. One guest contributor describes India's capital account liberalization, and another looks at how participants in international finance can cope with a fluid financial landscape. "People in Economics" profiles Guillermo Calvo; "Back to Basics" explains the difference between the purchasing power parity exchange rate and market exchange rates as measures of global economic growth; and "Country Focus" spotlights Australia.