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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Chapter 1 documents that near-term global financial stability risks have receded amid expectations that global disinflation is entering its last mile. However, along it, there are several salient risks and a build-up of medium-term vulnerabilities. Chapter 2 assesses vulnerabilities and potential risks to financial stability in corporate private credit, a rapidly growing asset class—traditionally focused on providing loans to midsize firms outside the realms of either commercial banks or public debt markets—that now rivals other major credit markets in size. Chapter 3 shows that while cyber incidents have thus far not been systemic, the probability of severe cyber incidents has increased, posing an acute threat to macrofinancial stability.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

In recent years, the Chilean financial sector experienced a series of cyberattacks, and this growing global risk of cybersecurity is posing a threat to the sector. Banks and financial market infrastructures appear to be resilient against cybersecurity risks, supported by a comprehensive regulatory framework, but lack of substitutability and high concentration of these institutions could pose systemic risk to the financial system. Moreover, given the current business segment of the Chilean fintech sector, expansion of the sector would lead to larger exposures to cybersecurity risk which the ongoing regulation of the sector by the authorities aims to mitigate. Ensuring sufficient human resources to ensure effective cybersecurity supervision of the financial sector as well as implementing ongoing policy initiatives, are warranted.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

The Icelandic financial system is large, concentrated and interconnected - banks and Non-Bank Financial Institutions (NBFIs) - domestically and internationally. There are 10 banks: 4 commercial banks and 6 savings banks, but the system is dominated by just three of the commercial banks (Arion banki, Íslandsbanki and Landsbankinn) that together account for 95 percent of banking assets. Cash use is declining as a percentage of point of sale (POS) transactions, leading to an increasing dependence on electronic payment means. The debit and credit cards used for most retail transactions rely on international communications with Visa and Mastercard.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical note focuses on cyber and operational resilience, supervision and oversight in Iceland. The Icelandic financial sector has not experienced seriously disruptive cyber-attacks or operational issues in recent years, but threats are growing. Iceland’s dependence on international connectivity for both debit and credit card systems introduces a significant vulnerability into the payment system. There is no dedicated cyber security strategy for the finance sector. Operational risk experts in the Central Bank of Iceland (CBI) are experienced and well regarded by financial institutions, but more resources are needed to provide adequate coverage of this increasingly important area. The supervision of financial institutions’ cybersecurity is highly dependent on self-assessments by the regulated entities themselves and independent reviews carried out by third parties. CBI should regularly revise the list of critical operations and critical service providers for internal use and for presentation to the Financial Stability Committee and Financial Stability Council. CBI is encouraged to enhance its incident dashboard by summarizing cyber incidents and examining trends.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical note evaluates strengthening cybersecurity in financial institutions of Trinidad and Tobago. The deliverables included a capacity-building seminar on regulation of cyber risk. The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago identified the need for filling regulatory gaps and desires to issue a focused guideline on cybersecurity covering governance, risk management, incident reporting, and cyber hygiene, and intends to develop a draft guideline for consultation with its regulated institutions in the first quarter of 2023. Supervisory arrangements for Information and Communication Technology/cyber risks need further improvements and resource constraints within Financial Institutions Supervision Department need to be addressed urgently. The Identity and Access Management project has been formally set up and is now in Phase 1, which is considered preparatory. The governance of the project, the high-level roadmap, and the deliverables for Phase 1 are generally in line with good practices. It is recommended to establish regular cybersecurity meetings and reporting regime at the Board level with the participation of the Head of IT Security.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

This technical note evaluates strengthening cybersecurity in financial institutions of Trinidad and Tobago. The deliverables included a capacity-building seminar on regulation of cyber risk. The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago identified the need for filling regulatory gaps and desires to issue a focused guideline on cybersecurity covering governance, risk management, incident reporting, and cyber hygiene, and intends to develop a draft guideline for consultation with its regulated institutions in the first quarter of 2023. Supervisory arrangements for Information and Communication Technology/cyber risks need further improvements and resource constraints within Financial Institutions Supervision Department need to be addressed urgently. The Identity and Access Management project has been formally set up and is now in Phase 1, which is considered preparatory. The governance of the project, the high-level roadmap, and the deliverables for Phase 1 are generally in line with good practices. It is recommended to establish regular cybersecurity meetings and reporting regime at the Board level with the participation of the Head of IT Security.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical assistance report discusses Cybersecurity Risk Supervision and Oversight in Sweden. Sweden’s financial sector is highly digitized and interconnected, and the related technological developments heighten cyber threats and vulnerabilities. Sweden is well-served with agencies engaged with cybersecurity, but the roles and responsibilities of each in respect to the cyber security of the financial sector should be clarified and barriers to sharing information resolved. It is important that the financial sector engages with and helps to shape the activities of the National Cyber Security Centre. Cyber incident reporting frameworks are in place, as are some, limited, information sharing for a, but there is still an appetite from financial institutions to receive more information on threats and incidents. Contingency plans and crisis protocols should be established for large-scale cyber-attacks affecting the Swedish financial sector. The Swedish authorities are advised to identify and address the barriers to information sharing between government agencies, the financial authorities, and the private sector.