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Ljubica Dordevic, Caio Ferreira, and Katharine Seal
The paper employs two complementary strategies. First, it is pursues textual analysis (text mining) of the assessment reports to identify successes and challenges the authorities are facing. Second, it analyzes the grades in the Basel Core Principles assessments, including their evolution and association with bank fragility.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department


The October 2019 Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) identifies the current key vulnerabilities in the global financial system as the rise in corporate debt burdens, increasing holdings of riskier and more illiquid assets by institutional investors, and growing reliance on external borrowing by emerging and frontier market economies. The report proposes that policymakers mitigate these risks through stricter supervisory and macroprudential oversight of firms, strengthened oversight and disclosure for institutional investors, and the implementation of prudent sovereign debt management practices and frameworks for emerging and frontier market economies.

Christine J. Richmond, Ms. Dora Benedek, Ezequiel Cabezon, Bobana Cegar, Mr. Peter Dohlman, Michelle Hassine, Beata Jajko, Piotr Kopyrski, Maksym Markevych, Mr. Jacques A Miniane, Mr. Francisco J Parodi, Gabor Pula, Mr. James Roaf, Min Kyu Song, Mariya Sviderskaya, Rima Turk, and Mr. Sebastian Weber
The Central, Eastern, and South Eastern European (CESEE) region is ripe for a reassessment of the role of the state in economic activity. The rapid income convergence with Western Europe of the early 2000s was not always equally shared across society, and it has now slowed dramatically in many countries of the region.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper presents an assessment of the level of observance of the Insurance Core Principles (ICPs) in China. Overall, the Chinese regulatory system is assessed to have a good level of compliance with the ICPs. The regulatory framework includes, in addition to the solvency standards, extensive requirements on corporate governance, risk management and internal controls as well as on reinsurance, disclosure and conduct of business. All these requirements are applied appropriately to the significant number of large insurance groups, which together account for the bulk of premium income. However, there is scope for further development of crisis preparedness and market conduct work.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper reviews the performance and reform plans for public bodies (PBs) in Trinidad and Tobago. PBs represent a source of fiscal risk to the government through the generation of financial losses, with current and capital transfers from the central government to PBs amounting to 3.5 percent of GDP in FY2015/16. Inappropriate pricing policy and weak governance are the most prevalent sources of fiscal risk. PBs must improve public service delivery and become profitable. Key policies should center on incentives for performance, stronger corporate governance, and better public oversight. Steadfast restructuring of PBs with losses must be implemented either through restructuring those that are nonviable or liquidating them to ensure efficiency and improved resource allocation.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note discusses the findings and recommendations in the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) for Spain in the area of banking supervision. Banking regulation and supervision of Spanish banks have improved considerably since the 2012 FSAP. Swift and determined action addressed the major weaknesses that led to the accumulation of imbalances in the banking system in the period leading to the crisis. Further reforms are needed because the transformation of the banking supervision function is far from complete. Actions to address misclassification and underprovisioning of assets have shown very good progress, but oversight must continue.
Mr. Luis Brandao-Marques
Chile has a large but relatively illiquid stock market. Global factors such as global risk appetite and monetary policy in advanced economies are key cyclical determinants of liquidity in Chilean equities. Evidence from a cross-section of emerging markets suggests strong protection of minority shareholders can help improve stock market liquitidity. Currently, illiquid in Chilean may have to pay 3½ percent more as cost of equity. Corporate governance should be improved, namely through the adoption of a stewardship code.