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Ruud A. de Mooij, Mr. Alexander D Klemm, and Ms. Victoria J Perry

Abstract

The book describes the difficulties of the current international corporate income tax system. It starts by describing its origins and how changes, such as the development of multinational enterprises and digitalization have created fundamental problems, not foreseen at its inception. These include tax competition—as governments try to attract tax bases through low tax rates or incentives, and profit shifting, as companies avoid tax by reporting profits in jurisdictions with lower tax rates. The book then discusses solutions, including both evolutionary changes to the current system and fundamental reform options. It covers both reform efforts already under way, for example under the Inclusive Framework at the OECD, and potential radical reform ideas developed by academics.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the drivers of firm productivity growth in Spain. Spain’s weak productivity performance has been linked to the dominance of many low-productivity small firms and inefficient allocation of resources. The biggest gain can be expected from lowering regulatory barriers to competition and the cost of doing business, including at the regional level. Further improving the access to equity and credit financing, in particular for innovative start-up companies, and addressing potential disincentive effects of size-contingent rules, can also make important contributions to raising productivity growth. Supporting innovation through increasing the efficiency of Research and Development (R&D) incentives and enhancing the private R&D investment should generate positive spillovers, which are difficult to capture empirically.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper describes the current tax system in Bhutan and suggests options for tax policy reform. Though significant hydropower revenues are expected in the medium term as major projects come on-stream, reforms to the existing tax system in the interim will generate fiscal room and prevent recourse to domestic debt to finance development needs. Key reforms include reducing tax exemptions in the near term and introduction of value-added tax in the medium term. The paper also analyzes the adequacy of international reserves in Bhutan using a customized risk-weighted metric. The results indicate that Bhutan’s reserve levels are ample.
International Monetary Fund
The staff report for Albania’s Sixth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility is presented. The economy has achieved robust noninflationary growth, albeit with increasing external imbalances, and has begun to tackle longstanding problems in the business environment. The upcoming elections risk diverting policymakers’ attention from stability-oriented policies. Despite significant buffers and inbuilt strengths of the financial sector, continued diligent supervision, high-frequency monitoring, and enhanced cooperation with foreign supervisors of resident banks will be needed to underpin prompt, proactive responses to changing circumstances.
International Monetary Fund
The Article IV Consultation highlights the financial system risks that have increased reflecting both the global financial market turbulence and continued rapid credit growth in Hungary. With most new borrowing in foreign currency, the private sector’s net foreign currency liabilities increased. Monetary policy has been appropriately tightened, and the elimination of the exchange rate band has removed a potential conflict between monetary policy objectives. Executive Directors called for enhanced collaboration with foreign supervisory authorities given Hungarian banks’ close links with financial institutions abroad.
International Monetary Fund
Aruba is one of the most developed islands in the Caribbean. Still, it is vulnerable to external shocks owing to its heavy dependence on tourism and a steady increase in public debt. Policies to support further fiscal consolidation and boost Aruba’s growth potential are needed. Maintaining macroeconomic stability will require fiscal adjustment and an appropriately tight monetary policy. Bolstering the growth potential will require creating the right conditions for private investment and diversification. The financial system is generally sound, but warrants continued supervisory vigilance.
Miss Catriona Purfield and Mr. Jerald A Schiff

Abstract

In the past few years, India has emerged as a global economic power. It is one of the world’s fastest-growing economies, the leading outsourcing destination, and a favorite of international investors. But even with India’s impressive recent achievements, the country continues to face considerable challenges as it seeks to sustain rapid growth and extend the benefits to all its citizens. Is India entering into a "Golden Age" or experiencing a period of rapid but ultimately unsustainable growth? The studies in this book examine in detail what lies behind India’s recent economic rise and considers the steps needed to build on this success over the medium term.

International Monetary Fund
This 2005 Article IV Consultation highlights that following three years of sluggish economic growth, activity in Guatemala improved somewhat in 2004, with real GDP rising by 2¾ percent, but consumer price inflation drifted upward to more than 9 percent. Monetary policy is being geared to reducing inflation to the 4–6 percent range. The exchange system is flexible, but the central bank has intervened in the foreign exchange in 2004 to contain the appreciation of the quetzal against the U.S. dollar. In January 2005, a rules-based mechanism for interventions was introduced.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper on Sri Lanka reviews several issues that highlight both Sri Lanka’s accomplishments and their policy constraints amidst a protracted period of civil conflict and political instability. High intermediation costs have held back development of the financial sector and could also frustrate Sri Lanka’s quest for higher growth. The main constraints to achieving higher growth include the civil conflict, political instability, high fiscal deficits and inflation, and underdeveloped financial markets.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper paints a picture of the Indian economy that has made great strides, but has more to do to accelerate growth and reduce poverty. The paper assesses empirically whether India has entered a new phase of higher trend growth. Two alternative methodologies are used to disentangle underlying structural growth trends from shorter-term cyclical fluctuations around this trend. The paper focuses on a number of the reforms required to ensure that needed high growth can be achieved on a sustained basis.