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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper examines the performance of Uruguay’s exports, external balances, and relative price movements over the past decade and applies the IMF’s standard external sector assessment tools to Uruguay. The results indicate that Uruguay has made important strides in export performance, including expanding markets shares over the past decade, driven by trade competitiveness gains. The current account deficit has remained well contained and more than fully financed by foreign direct investment over the past decade, notwithstanding external shocks. At the same time, the real exchange rate has appreciated strongly in recent years. Standard IMF equilibrium real exchange rate valuation models also suggest that the Uruguayan peso is slightly stronger than its equilibrium level.
Mr. Bennett W Sutton, Mrs. Genevieve M Lindow, Maria Isabel Serra, Mr. Gustavo Ramirez, and Maria Fernanda Pazmino
This paper presents empirical evidence on convergence of per capita output for regions within six large middle-income Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. It explores the role played by several exogenous sectoral shocks and differences in steady states within each country. It finds that poor and rich regions within each country converged at very low rates over the past three decades. It also finds evidence of regional "convergence clubs" within Brazil and Peru- the estimated speeds of convergence for these countries more than double after controlling for different subnational levels of steady state. For the latter countries and Chile, convergence is also higher after controlling for sector-specific shocks. Finally, results show that national disparities in per capita output increased temporarily after each country pursued trade liberalization.