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Suman S Basu and Gita Gopinath
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department, International Monetary Fund. Research Dept., International Monetary Fund. Institute for Capacity Development, and International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper highlights the Informational Annex on Republic of North Macedonia. The National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia (NBRNM) participates in the foreign exchange market, in order to achieve the goals of the monetary and foreign exchange policies. The NBRNM implements the monetary strategy of targeting the nominal exchange rate against the euro. The intermediary objective of the monetary policy is to maintain a stable denar exchange rate. Thus, the NBRNM maintains a stable exchange rate within a narrow band of bid-ask exchange rates determined by the Committee for Operational Monetary Policy. The de facto exchange rate arrangement is classified as a stabilized arrangement. North Macedonia has accepted the obligations of Article VIII, Sections 2, 3 and 4 and currently maintains an exchange system free of multiple currency practices and restrictions on the making of payments and transfers for current international transactions. The first consultation with the Republic of North Macedonia was concluded in August 1993. The last consultation was concluded on January 22, 2020.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
International Monetary Fund

BACKGROUND NOTE 4: USING THE IPF ANALYTICAL TOOLKIT TO ENHANCE POLICY ASSESSMENTS

Marcin Kolasa, Gurnain Kaur Pasricha, Mr. Suman S Basu, Ms. Emine Boz, and Dimitre Milkov
Marcin Kolasa, Gurnain Kaur Pasricha, Mr. Suman S Basu, Ms. Emine Boz, and Dimitre Milkov
Insights from the IPF workstream can help guide the appropriate policy mix during an inflow surge, based on the shock and country characteristics. Inflow surges may be caused by a range of shocks and can take different forms in different countries. The IPF models suggest that warranted macroeconomic policy adjustments depend on the nature of the shock and country characteristics. The IPF models point to shocks and country characteristics that make it difficult to effectively respond to surges using only macroeconomic policy and exchange rate adjustment. The IPF models also suggest that, in the presence of overheating and overvaluation, the use of FXI and CFMs can enhance monetary autonomy in certain circumstances without generating other distortions. The relative costs and benefits of FXI and CFMs depend on country-specific factors. The IPF models also illustrate how surges can lead to a build-up of systemic financial risks. The IPF workstream connects the appropriate mix of MPMs and CFM/MPMs to the structure of the country's financial system.
International Monetary Fund
The actions in this document aim at • Bringing the Fund’s framework for advice on capital flow policies up to date with recent research and lessons from experience. • Enhancing and coordinating a Fund-wide research • Ramping up the monitoring and analysis of capital flows. • Strengthening multilateral cooperation on policy issues affecting capital flows.
International Monetary Fund
Policymakers often face difficult tradeoffs in pursuing domestic and external stabilization objectives. The paper reflects staff’s work to advance the understanding of the policy options and tradeoffs available to policymakers in a systematic and analytical way. The paper recognizes that the optimal path of the IPF tools depends on structural characteristics and fiscal policies. The operational implications of IPF findings require careful consideration. Developing safeguards to minimize the risk of inappropriate use of IPF policies will be essential. Staff remains guided by the Fund’s Institutional View (IV) on the Liberalization and Management of Capital Flows.
International Monetary Fund

1. Policymakers can face difficult tradeoffs in managing large and volatile capital flows when confronted with financial and real shocks while pursuing their stabilization objectives. The benefits of capital flows are broadly recognized, but their volatility presents significant challenges. Capital flows to emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) have exhibited large swings in the last two decades (Figure 1). Several periods of sustained inflows—in many cases driven at least in part by easy monetary conditions in major advanced economies (AEs)—have been interrupted by sharp reversals. Flows to commodity exporters have also been influenced by gyrations in commodity prices. Changes in global financial conditions—and attendant swings in capital flows—present particular challenges for many EMDEs, engendering difficult tradeoffs for monetary policy stemming from relatively shallow markets,1 external borrowing constraints, and other vulnerabilities. Advanced economies are not necessarily immune to these shocks either.