Commercial Real Estate (CRE) debt constitute a large portion of corporate debt. Due to the funding structure this creates substantial risks for the financial system and the real economy, in general, due to broader spillover effects. Stress tests, conducted to assess the resilience of CRE sector, show that the median interest rate coverage would drop below one in a severe scenario, resulting in a ¾ of firms with debt-at-risk. CRE sector’s concentration, interconnectedness and insufficient disclosure of liabilities calls for close monitoring of liabilities structure and adjusting banks’ capital levels to better reflect current risks.
The Netherlands has committed to the EU’s ambitious targets for cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and emissions neutrality in 2050 but at the same time is also vulnerable to sea-level rise and flood risks. This paper reviews recent mitigation policy initiatives in the Netherlands, including carbon levies for the industry and power sectors, energy and car tax reforms, and air passenger taxes, and recommends some modifications to these initiatives. The paper also provides assessments of hazards and macroeconomic risks from weather shocks and climate change and assesses the adaption plan against key principles on mainstream climate change into macro-fiscal planning.
Global inflation surged in 2022, driven by high gas price growth. With Russia being a key supplier of energy products, the start of the war in Ukraine has led to strong inflationary pressures in the euro area (EA), given the region’s significant exposure to the Russian gas. The price shock has been particularly strong in the Netherlands, largely due to the larger share of gas on the energy mix compared to other peers, making the country vulnerable to changing market conditions.
With the supply of residential dwellings in the Netherlands having failed to live up to demand over the last decade, apprehension among the population about the availability of affordable housing has risen. Particularly spatial, regulatory, planning, environmental and supply chain constraints have kept a lid on construction. Recognizing the socio-economic challenges posed by inadequate housing supply, the government has embarked on an ambitious agenda with promising steps to boost the availability of affordable properties. To strengthen the traction of housing policies to reach its intended goals, a larger role for economic incentives and private sector involvement should be evaluated.