Browse

You are looking at 601 - 700 of 93,589 items

Labor Market Informality and the Business Cycle

Labor Market Informality and the Business Cycle »

Volume/Issue: 2020/256

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Frederic Lambert , Andrea Pescatori , and Frederik Toscani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561288.001

ISBN: 9781513561288

Keywords: Total factor productivity, Labor, Labor markets, Business cycles, Unemployment, labor market, informality, business cycle, WP, commodity price shock

Labor market informality is a pervasive feature of most developing economies. Motivated by the empirical regularity that the labor informality rate falls with GDP per capita, both at business cycle frequency and in...

Legal Aspects of Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Bank and Monetary Law Considerations

Legal Aspects of Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Bank and Monetary Law Considerations »

Volume/Issue: 2020/254

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wouter Bossu , Masaru Itatani , Catalina Margulis , Arthur D. P. Rossi , Hans Weenink , and Akihiro Yoshinaga

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561622.001

ISBN: 9781513561622

Keywords: Central Bank digital currencies, Currencies, Central bank legislation, Legal support in revenue administration, Payment systems, Central Bank Digital Currency, CBDC, Blockchain, Cryptocurrency, Crypto assets

This paper analyzes the legal foundations of central bank digital currency (CBDC) under central bank and monetary law. Absent strong legal foundations, the issuance of CBDC poses legal, financial and reputational r...

Local Currency Bond Markets Law Reform: A Methodology for Emerging Markets and Developing Economies

Local Currency Bond Markets Law Reform: A Methodology for Emerging Markets and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2020/258

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wouter Bossu , Cory Hillier , and Wolfgang Bergthaler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561608.001

ISBN: 9781513561608

Keywords: Securities, Legal support in revenue administration, Tax law, Bonds, Capital markets, local currency bond markets, development, financial stability, legal and tax frameworks, WP

Recent financial crises including the ongoing one caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have consistently drawn attention to the need to strengthen the quality of public debt management in emerging markets and developing...

Technological and Economic Decoupling in the Cyber Era

Technological and Economic Decoupling in the Cyber Era »

Volume/Issue: 2020/257

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Garcia Macia , and Rishi Goyal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561677.001

ISBN: 9781513561677

Keywords: Imports, Exports, Trade liberalization, Technology, Trade balance, digital economy, decoupling, corporate power, technological diffusion, WP

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the shift toward digital services. Meanwhile, the race for technological and economic leadership has heated up, with risks of decoupling that could set back trade and growth an...

What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Output Gaps?

What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Output Gaps? »

Volume/Issue: 2020/259

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jelle Barkema , Tryggvi Gudmundsson , and Mico Mrkaic

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561257.001

ISBN: 9781513561257

Keywords: Output gap, Potential output, Inflation, Business cycles, Current account balance, Output gaps, monetary policy, fiscal policy, WP, output gap estimate

Estimates of output gaps continue to play a key role in assessments of the stance of business cycles. This paper uses three approaches to examine the historical record of output gap measurements and their use in su...

Labor Market Informality and the Business Cycle

Labor Market Informality and the Business Cycle »

Source: Labor Market Informality and the Business Cycle

Volume/Issue: 2020/256

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Frederic Lambert , Andrea Pescatori , and Frederik Toscani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561288

Keywords: Total factor productivity, Labor, Labor markets, Business cycles, Unemployment, labor market, informality, business cycle, WP, commodity price shock

Labor market informality is a pervasive feature of most developing economies. Motivated by the empirical regularity that the labor informality rate falls with GDP per capita, both at business cycle frequency and in...

Legal Aspects of Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Bank and Monetary Law Considerations

Legal Aspects of Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Bank and Monetary Law Considerations »

Source: Legal Aspects of Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Bank and Monetary Law Considerations

Volume/Issue: 2020/254

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wouter Bossu , Masaru Itatani , Catalina Margulis , Arthur D. P. Rossi , Hans Weenink , and Akihiro Yoshinaga

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561622

Keywords: Central Bank digital currencies, Currencies, Central bank legislation, Legal support in revenue administration, Payment systems, Central Bank Digital Currency, CBDC, Blockchain, Cryptocurrency, Crypto assets

This paper analyzes the legal foundations of central bank digital currency (CBDC) under central bank and monetary law. Absent strong legal foundations, the issuance of CBDC poses legal, financial and reputational r...

Local Currency Bond Markets Law Reform: A Methodology for Emerging Markets and Developing Economies

Local Currency Bond Markets Law Reform: A Methodology for Emerging Markets and Developing Economies »

Source: Local Currency Bond Markets Law Reform: A Methodology for Emerging Markets and Developing Economies

Volume/Issue: 2020/258

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wouter Bossu , Cory Hillier , and Wolfgang Bergthaler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561608

Keywords: Securities, Legal support in revenue administration, Tax law, Bonds, Capital markets, local currency bond markets, development, financial stability, legal and tax frameworks, WP

Recent financial crises including the ongoing one caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have consistently drawn attention to the need to strengthen the quality of public debt management in emerging markets and developing...

Mexico: Review Under the Flexible Credit Line Arrangement—Press Release and Staff Report

Mexico: Review Under the Flexible Credit Line Arrangement—Press Release and Staff Report »

Source: Mexico : Review Under the Flexible Credit Line Arrangement-Press Release and Staff Report

Volume/Issue: 2020/306

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561714

Keywords: External debt, Public debt, Public sector, Inflation, Credit, ISCR, CR, FCL resource, Mexico's qualification, IMF's executive board

The Covid-19 shock this year has imposed an enormous strain on Mexico. Beside the staggering human cost, the economy faces a historic drop in output and employment and a sharp spike in poverty. It is expected to ta...

Nicaragua: Requests for Purchase Under the Rapid Financing Instrument and Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility —Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua

Nicaragua: Requests for Purchase Under the Rapid Financing Instrument and Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility —Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua »

Source: Nicaragua : Requests for Purchase under the Rapid Financing Instrument and Disbursement under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua

Volume/Issue: 2020/307

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561745

Keywords: Rapid Credit Facility, Currencies, COVID-19 , Public sector, Public debt, Credit, ISCR, CR, RFI financing, pandemic shock

Nicaragua faces an acute crisis as the COVID-19 shock comes on top of a two- year recession. So far, the speed of transmission of the pandemic in Nicaragua, in terms of officially confirmed cases, has been slower t...

Public Debt Dynamics and Intra-Year Exchange Rate Fluctuations

Public Debt Dynamics and Intra-Year Exchange Rate Fluctuations »

Source: Public Debt Dynamics and Intra-Year Exchange Rate Fluctuations

Volume/Issue: 2020/261

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Santiago Acosta Ormaechea

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561585

Keywords: Exchange rates, Public debt, Fiscal stance, Asset valuation, Currencies, Public debt dynamics, intra-year exchange rate fluctuations, interest rate-growth differential, debt stabilizing primary balance., WP

The public sector, in carrying out its operations, often incurs foreign currency denominated liabilities and, as such, is exposed to exchange rate fluctuations that could affect the value of public debt to GDP rati...

Statement by Mr. Bevilaqua, Executive Director for Nicaragua, Mr. Saraiva, Alternate Executive Director for Nicaragua, and Mr. Coronel, Advisor to the Executive Director for Nicaragua November 20, 2020

Statement by Mr. Bevilaqua, Executive Director for Nicaragua, Mr. Saraiva, Alternate Executive Director for Nicaragua, and Mr. Coronel, Advisor to the Executive Director for Nicaragua November 20, 2020 »

Source: Nicaragua : Requests for Purchase under the Rapid Financing Instrument and Disbursement under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua

Volume/Issue: 2020/307

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561745

Keywords: Rapid Credit Facility, Currencies, COVID-19 , Public sector, Public debt, Credit, ISCR, CR, RFI financing, pandemic shock

Nicaragua faces an acute crisis as the COVID-19 shock comes on top of a two- year recession. So far, the speed of transmission of the pandemic in Nicaragua, in terms of officially confirmed cases, has been slower t...

Technological and Economic Decoupling in the Cyber Era

Technological and Economic Decoupling in the Cyber Era »

Source: Technological and Economic Decoupling in the Cyber Era

Volume/Issue: 2020/257

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Garcia Macia , and Rishi Goyal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561677

Keywords: Imports, Exports, Trade liberalization, Technology, Trade balance, digital economy, decoupling, corporate power, technological diffusion, WP

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the shift toward digital services. Meanwhile, the race for technological and economic leadership has heated up, with risks of decoupling that could set back trade and growth an...

What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Output Gaps?

What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Output Gaps? »

Source: What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Output Gaps?

Volume/Issue: 2020/259

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jelle Barkema , Tryggvi Gudmundsson , and Mico Mrkaic

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561257

Keywords: Output gap, Potential output, Inflation, Business cycles, Current account balance, Output gaps, monetary policy, fiscal policy, WP, output gap estimate

Estimates of output gaps continue to play a key role in assessments of the stance of business cycles. This paper uses three approaches to examine the historical record of output gap measurements and their use in su...

Calculating Consumer Price Indices in Practice 8

Calculating Consumer Price Indices in Practice 8 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 8.1 The purpose of this chapter is to provide a general description of the ways in which consumer price indices (CPIs) are calculated in practice. The me...

Chile

Chile »

Source: Chile : Technical Assistance Report-Assessment of Tax Expenditures and Corrective Taxes

Volume/Issue: 2020/305

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561684

Keywords: Income, Personal income, Corporate income tax, Personal income tax, Value-added tax, ISCR, CR, excise tax, capital gain, taxable income

In response to a request from Mr. Ignacio Briones Rojas, Minister of Finance of Chile, a remote mission was conducted by a joint team of staff from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the secretariat of the O...

Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020
			: Concepts and Methods

Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484354841.069

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

The Consumer Price Index Manual: Concepts and Methods contains comprehensive information and explanations on compiling a consumer price index (CPI). The Manual provides an overview of the methods and practices nati...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

The Consumer Price Index Manual: Concepts and Methods contains comprehensive information and explanations on compiling a consumer price index (CPI). The Manual provides an overview of the methods and practices nati...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

The Consumer Price Index Manual: Concepts and Methods contains comprehensive information and explanations on compiling a consumer price index (CPI). The Manual provides an overview of the methods and practices nati...

Data Quality Management and Reporting 13

Data Quality Management and Reporting 13 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 13.1 Consumer price indices (CPI) are one of the most important statistical indicators produced on a regular basis by national statistical offices (NSOs)...

Errors and Bias 12

Errors and Bias 12 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 12.1 The consumer price index (CPI), like all other statistics, may be subject to general error that may occur during any stage of the estimation process...

Expenditure Weights and Their Sources 3

Expenditure Weights and Their Sources 3 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 3.1 A consumer price index (CPI) is usually calculated as a weighted average of the relative price changes of the goods and services covered by the index...

A Glossary of Main Terms

A Glossary of Main Terms »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Acquisitions approach An approach to consumer price indices (CPIs) in which consumption is...

Chile
			: Technical Assistance Report-Assessment of Tax Expenditures and Corrective Taxes

Chile : Technical Assistance Report-Assessment of Tax Expenditures and Corrective Taxes »

Volume/Issue: 2020/305

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561684.002

ISBN: 9781513561684

Keywords: Income, Personal income, Corporate income tax, Personal income tax, Value-added tax, ISCR, CR, excise tax, capital gain, taxable income

In response to a request from Mr. Ignacio Briones Rojas, Minister of Finance of Chile, a remote mission was conducted by a joint team of staff from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the secretariat of the O...

Introduction, Overview, and Basic Steps for the Consumer Price Index Development 1

Introduction, Overview, and Basic Steps for the Consumer Price Index Development 1 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 1.1 Chapter 1 provides a self-contained overview of the uses and the basic steps for compiling the consumer price index (CPI). More than j...

Maintaining the Sample 7

Maintaining the Sample 7 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 7.1 When a new good or service is produced and consumed, there is a need for it to be included in the index as soon as possible, especially if the good o...

Price Collection and Validation 5

Price Collection and Validation 5 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 5.1 Several factors will determine the choice of which price collection methods a national statistical office (NSO) uses, taking into consideration effic...

Prueblalticioatnison, Dissemination, and User 14

Prueblalticioatnison, Dissemination, and User 14 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 14.1 The consumer price index (CPI) represents a key indicator of economic performance in most countries, as described in Chapter 2. Where statistics are...

Sampling 4

Sampling 4 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 4.1 To construct a perfectly accurate consumer price index (CPI), the price statistician would need to record the price of every variety of all the goods...

Scanner Data 10

Scanner Data 10 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 10.1 The environment in which statistical agencies operate is changing. New opportunities to access and interrogate big data are becoming available, incr...

Selected Special Cases 11

Selected Special Cases 11 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 11.1 Certain products have proven to be challenging for consumer price index (CPI) compilers with regard to developing weights and collecting prices. Cha...

Temporarily and Permanently Missing Prices and Quality Change 6

Temporarily and Permanently Missing Prices and Quality Change 6 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 6.1 Chapter 6 focuses on the treatment of temporarily and permanently missing varieties and their prices. While Chapter 5 focuses on the c...

Updating CPI Weights and Linking New to Previous CPI Series 9

Updating CPI Weights and Linking New to Previous CPI Series 9 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 9.1 Consumer price index (CPI) weights should be updated on a periodic basis (see Chapter 3). The preferred interval is at least once every five years. T...

Uses, Concepts, Scope, and Classifications of Consumer Price Indices 2

Uses, Concepts, Scope, and Classifications of Consumer Price Indices 2 »

Source: Consumer Price Index Manual, 2020 : Concepts and Methods

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Brian Graf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2020

ISBN: 9781484354841

Keywords: Consumer price indexes, Price indexes, Expenditure, Consumption, Housing, cconsumer price index, CPI, CPI Manual, CPI concepts, CPI methods

Introduction 2.1 Chapter 2 begins with an overview describing the uses of the consumer price index (CPI). The primary uses drive the decisions regardin...

Botswana

Botswana »

Source: Botswana : Technical Assistance Report-National Accounts Mission

Volume/Issue: 2020/303

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561493

Keywords: National accounts, Financial sector, Health, Data collection, Trade in services, ISCR, CR, SB list, SB staff, SB frame

A technical assistance (TA) mission was conducted by IMF's Regional Technical Assistance Center for Southern Africa (AFS)1 during June 8-12, 2020 to assist Statistics Botswana (SB) in improving the quality of the n...

Burkina FASO: Fourth and Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Rephasing of Access—Debt Sustainability Analysis

Burkina FASO: Fourth and Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Rephasing of Access—Debt Sustainability Analysis »

Source: Burkina Faso : Fourth & Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion & Rephasing of Access-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso

Volume/Issue: 2020/304

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561530

Keywords: Public debt, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, Securities, Expenditure, ISCR, CR, ECF program performance, ECF arrangement, IMF lending tracker

The security crisis is worsening and is leading to disruption of basic public services and an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. The Covid19 outbreak and the authority's response to contain its spread further compo...

Burkina Faso: Fourth and Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Rephasing of Access—Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso: Fourth and Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Rephasing of Access—Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso »

Source: Burkina Faso : Fourth & Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion & Rephasing of Access-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso

Volume/Issue: 2020/304

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561530

Keywords: Public debt, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, Securities, Expenditure, ISCR, CR, ECF program performance, ECF arrangement, IMF lending tracker

The security crisis is worsening and is leading to disruption of basic public services and an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. The Covid19 outbreak and the authority's response to contain its spread further compo...

IMF Executive Board Completes the Fourth and Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Approves the Disbursement of US$51.28 Million for Burkina Faso

IMF Executive Board Completes the Fourth and Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Approves the Disbursement of US$51.28 Million for Burkina Faso »

Source: Burkina Faso : Fourth & Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion & Rephasing of Access-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso

Volume/Issue: 2020/304

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561530

Keywords: Public debt, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, Securities, Expenditure, ISCR, CR, ECF program performance, ECF arrangement, IMF lending tracker

The security crisis is worsening and is leading to disruption of basic public services and an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. The Covid19 outbreak and the authority's response to contain its spread further compo...

Botswana
			: Technical Assistance Report-National Accounts Mission

Botswana : Technical Assistance Report-National Accounts Mission »

Volume/Issue: 2020/303

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561493.002

ISBN: 9781513561493

Keywords: National accounts, Financial sector, Health, Data collection, Trade in services, ISCR, CR, SB list, SB staff, SB frame

A technical assistance (TA) mission was conducted by IMF's Regional Technical Assistance Center for Southern Africa (AFS)1 during June 8-12, 2020 to assist Statistics Botswana (SB) in improving the quality of the n...

Burkina Faso
			: Fourth & Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion & Rephasing of Access-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso : Fourth & Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion & Rephasing of Access-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso »

Volume/Issue: 2020/304

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561530.002

ISBN: 9781513561530

Keywords: Public debt, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, Securities, Expenditure, ISCR, CR, ECF program performance, ECF arrangement, IMF lending tracker

The security crisis is worsening and is leading to disruption of basic public services and an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. The Covid19 outbreak and the authority's response to contain its spread further compo...

Statement by Mr. Aivo Andrianarivelo, Executive Director for Burkina Faso, and Mr. Facinet Sylla, Alternate Executive Director, and Mr. Marcellin Koffi Alle, Senior Advisor to Executive Director

Statement by Mr. Aivo Andrianarivelo, Executive Director for Burkina Faso, and Mr. Facinet Sylla, Alternate Executive Director, and Mr. Marcellin Koffi Alle, Senior Advisor to Executive Director »

Source: Burkina Faso : Fourth & Fifth Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion & Rephasing of Access-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burkina Faso

Volume/Issue: 2020/304

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561530

Keywords: Public debt, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, Securities, Expenditure, ISCR, CR, ECF program performance, ECF arrangement, IMF lending tracker

The security crisis is worsening and is leading to disruption of basic public services and an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. The Covid19 outbreak and the authority's response to contain its spread further compo...

Reserve Currencies in an Evolving International Monetary System

Reserve Currencies in an Evolving International Monetary System »

Volume/Issue: 2020/002

Series: Departmental Papers

Author(s): Alina Iancu , Gareth Anderson , Sakai Ando , Ethan Boswell , Andrea Gamba , Shushanik Hakobyan , Lusine Lusinyan , Neil Meads , and Yiqun Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513560298.087

ISBN: 9781513560298

Keywords: Reserve currencies, Basket of currencies composition, Debt (external), International monetary system, Currencies, Digital currencies, International reserves, Central Bank digital currencies, Foreign exchange reserves, international currency

Despite major structural shifts in the international monetary system over the past six decades, the US dollar remains the dominant international reserve currency. Using a newly compiled database of individual econo...

Reserve Currencies in an Evolving International Monetary System

Reserve Currencies in an Evolving International Monetary System »

Source: Reserve Currencies in an Evolving International Monetary System

Volume/Issue: 2020/002

Series: Departmental Papers

Author(s): Alina Iancu , Gareth Anderson , Sakai Ando , Ethan Boswell , Andrea Gamba , Shushanik Hakobyan , Lusine Lusinyan , Neil Meads , and Yiqun Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513560298

Keywords: Reserve currencies, Basket of currencies composition, Debt (external), International monetary system, Currencies, Digital currencies, International reserves, Central Bank digital currencies, Foreign exchange reserves, international currency

Despite major structural shifts in the international monetary system over the past six decades, the US dollar remains the dominant international reserve currency. Using a newly compiled database of individual econo...

About the IMF

About the IMF »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a global organization of 189 member countries * set up to promote the health of the world...

Capacity Development

Capacity Development »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

Strengthening the capacity of institutions, including central banks, finance ministries, revenue administrations, statistical agencies, and financial sector supervisory agencies, results in more...

Climate change

Climate change »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

Climate change is a linchpin of the Sustainable Development Goals. THE IMF IS HELPING COUNTRIES IMPL...

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate Social Responsibility »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

THE IMF IS COMMITTED TO IMPROVING THE 2 WORLD WE LIVE IN AND BEING MINDFUL OF THE IMPACT OF OUR OPERATIONS. Environmental sustainability and philanthr...

COVID-19

COVID-19 »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

Swift action helped fight the pandemic and limit the damage to people’s lives and the global economy It has been a crisis like no other. To tackle the health emer...

Debt Dynamics

Debt Dynamics »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

Low interest rates and high debt will shape the years ahead SUPPORTING THE RECOVERY WITH FISCAL MEAS...

Economic Surveillance

Economic Surveillance »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

The Board discusses all aspects of the Fund’s work, from the IMF staff’s annual health checks of member countries’ economies to policy issues relevant to the global economy. The Board carries ou...

Economics Shape People’s Lives

Economics Shape People’s Lives »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

Government policies can help people adapt to big global changes People all over the world are facing massive challenges and changes: the global pandemic, the effe...

Executive Directors As of April 30, 2020

Executive Directors As of April 30, 2020 »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

The Executive Board is responsible for conducting the day-to-day business of the IMF. It is composed of 24 Directors, who are elected by member countries or by groups of countries, and the Manag...

Fintech

Fintech »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

Financial technology—fintech—opens opportunities, especially for financial inclusion, but policymakers must also address the risks Countries have broadly embraced...

I. Financial Statements of the General Department

I. Financial Statements of the General Department »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020 Financial Statements

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513547770

Report of Independent Auditors To...

II. Financial Statements of the SDR Department

II. Financial Statements of the SDR Department »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020 Financial Statements

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513547770

Report of Independent Auditors To...

III. Financial Statements of the Concessional Lending and Debt Relief Trusts

III. Financial Statements of the Concessional Lending and Debt Relief Trusts »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020 Financial Statements

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513547770

Report of Independent Auditors To...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020 Financial Statements

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513547770

The audited consolidated financial statements of the International Monetary Fund as of April 30, 2020 and 2019...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020 Financial Statements

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020 Financial Statements »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513547770.011

ISBN: 9781513547770

The audited consolidated financial statements of the International Monetary Fund as of April 30, 2020 and 2019...

IMF Executive Board Approves US$52.3 Million Disbursement to South Sudan to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic

IMF Executive Board Approves US$52.3 Million Disbursement to South Sudan to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic »

Source: Republic of South Sudan : Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan

Volume/Issue: 2020/301

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561356

Keywords: Rapid Credit Facility, Public debt, Public financial management (PFM), Oil prices, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, ISCR, CR, governor of the Bank of South Sudan, discussions with Mr. Ngor

After five years of civil conflict, the warring parties came to a peace agreement in September 2018. Until the COVID-19 crisis broke out, improved political stability and an uptick in international oil prices led t...

Republic of South Sudan
			: Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan

Republic of South Sudan : Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan »

Volume/Issue: 2020/301

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561356.002

ISBN: 9781513561356

Keywords: Rapid Credit Facility, Public debt, Public financial management (PFM), Oil prices, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, ISCR, CR, governor of the Bank of South Sudan, discussions with Mr. Ngor

After five years of civil conflict, the warring parties came to a peace agreement in September 2018. Until the COVID-19 crisis broke out, improved political stability and an uptick in international oil prices led t...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513538211.011

ISBN: 9781513538211

This year, as the world faced a crisis like no other, the International Monetary Fund and its member countries swung into action to save lives and put a floor under the world economy. But the outlook remains uncert...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

This year, as the world faced a crisis like no other, the International Monetary Fund and its member countries swung into action to save lives and put a floor under the world economy. But the outlook remains uncert...

IV. Financial Statements of the Administered Accounts

IV. Financial Statements of the Administered Accounts »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020 Financial Statements

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513547770

Report of Independent Auditors To...

Lending

Lending »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

LENDING INFORMATION COVERS MAY 1, 2019–SEPTEMBER 15, 2020. Unlike development banks, the IMF does not lend for specific projects. Instead, IMF financing is meant to help me...

Management Team

Management Team »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

The IMF has a Managing Director, who is head of the staff and Chair of the Executive Board. The Managing Director is assisted by a First Deputy Managing Director and three other Deputy Managing...

Member Voices the New Unknown

Member Voices the New Unknown »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

KEN OFORI-ATTA GHANA MINISTER OF FINANCE “The proactiveness and the speed with which the IMF has worked during the COVID...

Part 1. A Crisis Like no Other

Part 1. A Crisis Like no Other »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

...

Part 2 What We do

Part 2 What We do »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

THROUGH SURVEILLANCE, THE IMF MONITORS THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM and global economic developments, and engages in a health check of the economic and financial policies of its 189 member...

Part 3 Who We are

Part 3 Who We are »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2020

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513538211

IMF Organization Chart as of April 30, 2020 1 Known formally as the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of...

Republic of South Sudan: Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility—Debt Sustainability Analysis

Republic of South Sudan: Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility—Debt Sustainability Analysis »

Source: Republic of South Sudan : Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan

Volume/Issue: 2020/301

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561356

Keywords: Rapid Credit Facility, Public debt, Public financial management (PFM), Oil prices, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, ISCR, CR, governor of the Bank of South Sudan, discussions with Mr. Ngor

After five years of civil conflict, the warring parties came to a peace agreement in September 2018. Until the COVID-19 crisis broke out, improved political stability and an uptick in international oil prices led t...

Republic of South Sudan: Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility—Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan

Republic of South Sudan: Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility—Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan »

Source: Republic of South Sudan : Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan

Volume/Issue: 2020/301

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561356

Keywords: Rapid Credit Facility, Public debt, Public financial management (PFM), Oil prices, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, ISCR, CR, governor of the Bank of South Sudan, discussions with Mr. Ngor

After five years of civil conflict, the warring parties came to a peace agreement in September 2018. Until the COVID-19 crisis broke out, improved political stability and an uptick in international oil prices led t...

Republic of South Sudan: Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility—Supplementary Information and Revised Letter of Intent

Republic of South Sudan: Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility—Supplementary Information and Revised Letter of Intent »

Source: Republic of South Sudan : Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan

Volume/Issue: 2020/301

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561356

Keywords: Rapid Credit Facility, Public debt, Public financial management (PFM), Oil prices, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, ISCR, CR, governor of the Bank of South Sudan, discussions with Mr. Ngor

After five years of civil conflict, the warring parties came to a peace agreement in September 2018. Until the COVID-19 crisis broke out, improved political stability and an uptick in international oil prices led t...

Statement by Ms. Mannathoko, Alternate Executive Director, and Mr. Garang, Advisor on the Republic of South Sudan November 11, 2020

Statement by Ms. Mannathoko, Alternate Executive Director, and Mr. Garang, Advisor on the Republic of South Sudan November 11, 2020 »

Source: Republic of South Sudan : Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of South Sudan

Volume/Issue: 2020/301

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561356

Keywords: Rapid Credit Facility, Public debt, Public financial management (PFM), Oil prices, External debt, Debt sustainability analysis, ISCR, CR, governor of the Bank of South Sudan, discussions with Mr. Ngor

After five years of civil conflict, the warring parties came to a peace agreement in September 2018. Until the COVID-19 crisis broke out, improved political stability and an uptick in international oil prices led t...

Banking Across Borders: Are Chinese Banks Different?

Banking Across Borders: Are Chinese Banks Different? »

Source: Banking Across Borders: Are Chinese Banks Different?

Volume/Issue: 2020/249

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugenio Cerutti , Catherine Koch , and Swapan-Kumar Pradhan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561226

Keywords: Bank credit, Portfolio investment, Cross-border banking, Foreign direct investment, Foreign banks, Chinese banks, Trade, FDI, Gravity model, WP

We explore the global footprint of Chinese banks and compare it with that of other bank nationalities. Chinese banks have become the largest cross-border creditors for almost half of all emerging market and develop...

China's Rebalancing: Opportunities and Challenges for LAC Exporters

China's Rebalancing: Opportunities and Challenges for LAC Exporters »

Source: China's Rebalancing: Opportunities and Challenges for LAC Exporters

Volume/Issue: 2020/239

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nitya Aasaavari , Fabio Di Vittorio , Ana Lariau , Yuebo Li , Rui Mano , and Pedro Rodriguez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561141

Keywords: Exports, Competition, Comparative advantage, Imports, Real exports, China’s rebalancing, Latin America and the Caribbean, trade integration, WP, Asia-Lac trade linkage

Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), two regions with large growth potential, have become increasingly connected over the last 20 years. China has emerged not only as a top trading partner, but also as a...

Enhancing Fiscal Transparency and Reporting in India

Enhancing Fiscal Transparency and Reporting in India »

Source: Enhancing Fiscal Transparency and Reporting in India

Volume/Issue: 2020/250

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Blagrave , and Fabien Gonguet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513559599

Keywords: Government debt management, Fiscal reporting, Budget planning and preparation, Fiscal transparency, Fiscal risks, Government Statistics, Budget Systems, India, WP, Union government

Current fiscal transparency and reporting practices in India place it behind most peer G20 economies, implying that policy makers are lacking critical data to ground their fiscal and other economic planning decisio...

Fintech in Europe: Promises and Threats

Fintech in Europe: Promises and Threats »

Source: Fintech in Europe: Promises and Threats

Volume/Issue: 2020/241

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Chikako Baba , Cristina Batog , Enrique Flores , Borja Gracia , Izabela Karpowicz , Piotr Kopyrski , James Roaf , Anna Shabunina , Rachel Elkan , and Xin Cindy Xu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561165

Keywords: Fintech, Peer-to-peer lending, Loans, Financial statements, Crowdfunding, lending, payment system, European Union, Payments Directive, PSD2

Europe's high pre-existing level of financial development can partly account for the relatively smaller reach of fintech payment and lending activities compared to some other regions. But fintech activity is growin...

The Great Lockdown: International Risk Sharing Through Trade and Policy Coordination1

The Great Lockdown: International Risk Sharing Through Trade and Policy Coordination1 »

Source: The Great Lockdown: International Risk Sharing Through Trade and Policy Coordination

Volume/Issue: 2020/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philipp Engler , Nathalie Pouokam , Diego Rodriguez Guzman , and Irina Yakadina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513560182

Keywords: Consumption, Terms of trade, Labor, Consumption taxes, COVID-19 , Great Lockown, epidemic, trade, optimal containment, cooperation

Voluntary and government-mandated lockdowns in response to COVID-19 have caused causing drastic reductions in economic activity around the world. We present a parsimonious two-country-SIR model with some degree of...

IMF Executive Board Approves A US$370 Million Extended Credit Facility Arrangement to Support the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

IMF Executive Board Approves A US$370 Million Extended Credit Facility Arrangement to Support the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan »

Source: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan : Request for a 42-Month Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Volume/Issue: 2020/300

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561127

Keywords: Public debt, Expenditure, Budget planning and preparation, Currencies, External debt, ISCR, CR, asset declaration regime, COVID emergency financing grant, anti-corruption regime

The COVID-19 pandemic has inflicted a heavy economic and social toll, amplifying the challenges of the armed conflict and fragility. Activity contracted sharply, and new external and fiscal financing needs emerged...

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2020 Article IV Consultation with Spain

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2020 Article IV Consultation with Spain »

Source: Spain : 2020 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Spain

Volume/Issue: 192020/298

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

ISBN: 9781513561004

Keywords: Income, Public debt, Labor, Loans, Loan guarantees, ISCR, CR, GDP outturn, draft budget law, staff assumption

COVID-19 impact. The pandemic has hit Spain's society and economy severely following five years of strong job-rich growth. A large service sector dominated by SMEs, importance of tourism, and widespread use of temp...

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
			: Request for a 42-Month Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan : Request for a 42-Month Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan »

Volume/Issue: 2020/300

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561127.002

ISBN: 9781513561127

Keywords: Public debt, Expenditure, Budget planning and preparation, Currencies, External debt, ISCR, CR, asset declaration regime, COVID emergency financing grant, anti-corruption regime

The COVID-19 pandemic has inflicted a heavy economic and social toll, amplifying the challenges of the armed conflict and fragility. Activity contracted sharply, and new external and fiscal financing needs emerged...

Spain
			: 2020 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Spain

Spain : 2020 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Spain »

Volume/Issue: 192020/298

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561004.002

ISBN: 9781513561004

Keywords: Income, Public debt, Labor, Loans, Loan guarantees, ISCR, CR, GDP outturn, draft budget law, staff assumption

COVID-19 impact. The pandemic has hit Spain's society and economy severely following five years of strong job-rich growth. A large service sector dominated by SMEs, importance of tourism, and widespread use of temp...

Spain
			: Selected Issues

Spain : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 192020/299

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513560984.002

ISBN: 9781513560984

Keywords: Women, Labor markets, Gender inequality, Labor, Minimum wages, ISCR, CR, job loss probability, minimum wage wage earner, minimum-to-median wage ratio

The COVID-19 pandemic will exacerbate Spain's already large inclusion gap. Responding in the recovery with policies that support social objectives should be a key priority and calls for several structural changes....

Banking Across Borders: Are Chinese Banks Different?

Banking Across Borders: Are Chinese Banks Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2020/249

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugenio Cerutti , Catherine Koch , and Swapan-Kumar Pradhan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561226.001

ISBN: 9781513561226

Keywords: Bank credit, Portfolio investment, Cross-border banking, Foreign direct investment, Foreign banks, Chinese banks, Trade, FDI, Gravity model, WP

We explore the global footprint of Chinese banks and compare it with that of other bank nationalities. Chinese banks have become the largest cross-border creditors for almost half of all emerging market and develop...

China's Rebalancing: Opportunities and Challenges for LAC Exporters

China's Rebalancing: Opportunities and Challenges for LAC Exporters »

Volume/Issue: 2020/239

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nitya Aasaavari , Fabio Di Vittorio , Ana Lariau , Yuebo Li , Rui Mano , and Pedro Rodriguez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561141.001

ISBN: 9781513561141

Keywords: Exports, Competition, Comparative advantage, Imports, Real exports, China’s rebalancing, Latin America and the Caribbean, trade integration, WP, Asia-Lac trade linkage

Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), two regions with large growth potential, have become increasingly connected over the last 20 years. China has emerged not only as a top trading partner, but also as a...

Enhancing Fiscal Transparency and Reporting in India

Enhancing Fiscal Transparency and Reporting in India »

Volume/Issue: 2020/250

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Blagrave , and Fabien Gonguet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513559599.001

ISBN: 9781513559599

Keywords: Government debt management, Fiscal reporting, Budget planning and preparation, Fiscal transparency, Fiscal risks, Government Statistics, Budget Systems, India, WP, Union government

Current fiscal transparency and reporting practices in India place it behind most peer G20 economies, implying that policy makers are lacking critical data to ground their fiscal and other economic planning decisio...

Fintech in Europe: Promises and Threats

Fintech in Europe: Promises and Threats »

Volume/Issue: 2020/241

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Chikako Baba , Cristina Batog , Enrique Flores , Borja Gracia , Izabela Karpowicz , Piotr Kopyrski , James Roaf , Anna Shabunina , Rachel Elkan , and Xin Cindy Xu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561165.001

ISBN: 9781513561165

Keywords: Fintech, Peer-to-peer lending, Loans, Financial statements, Crowdfunding, lending, payment system, European Union, Payments Directive, PSD2

Europe's high pre-existing level of financial development can partly account for the relatively smaller reach of fintech payment and lending activities compared to some other regions. But fintech activity is growin...

Imported Food Price Shocks and Socio-Political Instability: Do Fiscal Policy and Remittances Matter?

Imported Food Price Shocks and Socio-Political Instability: Do Fiscal Policy and Remittances Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2020/248

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Carine Meyimdjui

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561219.001

ISBN: 9781513561219

Keywords: Commodity price shocks, Remittances, Fiscal policy, Expenditure, Government consumption, import food price shocks, political instability, fiscal policy., WP, food price shock

Using a panel of 101 low- and middle-income countries with data covering the period 1980-2012, this paper applies various econometric approaches that deal with endogeneity issues to assess the impact of food price...

Improving the Short-term Forecast of World Trade During the Covid-19 Pandemic Using Swift Data on Letters of Credit

Improving the Short-term Forecast of World Trade During the Covid-19 Pandemic Using Swift Data on Letters of Credit »

Volume/Issue: 2020/247

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Benjamin Carton , Nan Hu , Joannes Mongardini , Kei Moriya , and Aneta Radzikowski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561196.001

ISBN: 9781513561196

Keywords: Oil prices, Imports, Exports, Trade finance, Trade balance, SWIFT, trade forecast, machine learning, WP, world trade

An essential element of the work of the Fund is to monitor and forecast international trade. This paper uses SWIFT messages on letters of credit, together with crude oil prices and new export orders of manufacturin...

India's Inflation Process Before and After Flexible Inflation Targeting

India's Inflation Process Before and After Flexible Inflation Targeting »

Volume/Issue: 2020/251

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Blagrave , and Weicheng Lian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561233.001

ISBN: 9781513561233

Keywords: Inflation, Food prices, Inflation targeting, Emerging and frontier financial markets, Import prices, India, WP, inflation expectation, headline inflation processes, food price inflation

We study the inflation process in India, focusing on the periods before and after the adoption of flexible inflation-forecast targeting (FIT) in India. Our analysis uses several approaches including standard Philli...

Inflation Expectations in the U.S.: Linking Markets, Households, and Businesses

Inflation Expectations in the U.S.: Linking Markets, Households, and Businesses »

Volume/Issue: 2020/240

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Peter Williams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561158.001

ISBN: 9781513561158

Keywords: Inflation, Return on investment, Oil prices, Liquidity, Inflation targeting, inflation expectations, yield curve, factor modeling, no-arbitrage term structure model, TIPS

Inflation has been below the Federal Reserve's target for much of the past 20 years, creating worries that inflation may be deanchoring from the FOMC's target. This paper uses a factor model that incorporates infor...

Monetary and Macroprudential Policy with Endogenous Risk

Monetary and Macroprudential Policy with Endogenous Risk »

Volume/Issue: 2020/236

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tobias Adrian , Fernando Duarte , Nellie Liang , and Pawel Zabczyk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561066.001

ISBN: 9781513561066

Keywords: Monetary Policy, Macroprudential Policy, Macro-Finance.

We extend the New Keynesian (NK) model to include endogenous risk. Lower interest rates not only shift consumption intertemporally but also conditional output risk via their impact on risk-taking, giving rise to a...

Monetary Policy Surprises and Inflation Expectation Dispersion

Monetary Policy Surprises and Inflation Expectation Dispersion »

Volume/Issue: 2020/252

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bertrand Gruss , Sandra Lizarazo , and Francesco Grigoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513559650.001

ISBN: 9781513559650

Keywords: Inflation, Economic forecasting, Inflation targeting, Central bank policy rate, Futures, Anchoring, disagreement, dispersion, information rigidity, in?ation expectations

Anchoring of inflation expectations is of paramount importance for central banks' ability to deliver stable inflation and minimize price dispersion. Relying on daily interest rates and inflation forecasts from majo...

Non-Linearities in Fiscal Policy:The Role of Debt

Non-Linearities in Fiscal Policy:The Role of Debt »

Volume/Issue: 2020/246

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexandra Fotiou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513560939.001

ISBN: 9781513560939

Keywords: Fiscal consolidation, Public debt, Expenditure, Fiscal policy, Fiscal multipliers, Debt, Recessions, Expansions, Fiscal consolidations, Interacted-STVAR

Empirical evidence shows that fiscal multipliers depend on the state of the cycle, the nature of fiscal policy and the level of debt. In other words, evidence points to non-linearities in the effects of fiscal poli...

Optimal Simple Objectives for Monetary Policy when Banks Matter

Optimal Simple Objectives for Monetary Policy when Banks Matter »

Volume/Issue: 2020/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lien Laureys , Roland Meeks , and Boromeus Wanengkirtyo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561172.001

ISBN: 9781513561172

Keywords: Output gap, Inflation, Financial frictions, Inflation targeting, Production growth, Monetary policy, Simple loss function, Banks, Medium-scale DSGE models, Euro area economy.

We reconsider the design of welfare-optimal monetary policy when financing frictions impair the supply of bank credit, and when the objectives set for monetary policy must be simple enough to be implementable and a...

Perfect Storm: Climate Change and Tourism

Perfect Storm: Climate Change and Tourism »

Volume/Issue: 2020/243

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serhan Cevik , and Manuk Ghazanchyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513559575.001

ISBN: 9781513559575

Keywords: Climate change, Tourism, Natural disasters, Public expenditure review, Estimation techniques, global warming, adaptation, resilience, Caribbean, WP

While the world's attention is on dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change remains a greater existential threat to vulnerable countries that are highly dependent on a weather-sensitive sector like tourism...

Pre- and Post-GFC Policy Multipliers

Pre- and Post-GFC Policy Multipliers »

Volume/Issue: 2020/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sam Ouliaris , and Celine Rochon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561097.001

ISBN: 9781513561097

Keywords: fiscal multipliers, structural VAR, financial crisis (GFC)

This paper estimates the change in policy multipliers in the U.S. relative to their pre-2008 financial crisis levels using an augmented Blanchard-Perotti model to allow for the dynamic effects of shocks to the cent...

Stress Testing U.S. Leveraged Corporates in a COVID-19 World

Stress Testing U.S. Leveraged Corporates in a COVID-19 World »

Volume/Issue: 2020/238

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Carlos Caceres , Diego Cerdeiro , Dan Pan , and Suchanan Tambunlertchai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561134.001

ISBN: 9781513561134

Keywords: Stress testing, Stocks, Corporate sector, Currencies, Loans, corporate, firm value, leverage, solvency, liquidity.

This paper analyzes a group of 755 firms, with aggregate indebtedness of US$6.2 trillion, to assess the solvency risks and liquidity needs facing the U.S. corporate sector based on projections of net income, availa...

Tax Evasion from Cross-Border Fraud: Does Digitalization Make a Difference?

Tax Evasion from Cross-Border Fraud: Does Digitalization Make a Difference? »

Volume/Issue: 2020/245

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Emmanouil Kitsios , João Tovar Jalles , and Genevieve Verdier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513561189.001

ISBN: 9781513561189

Keywords: Digitalization, Value-added tax, Tariffs, Imports, Tax evasion, panel data, fiscal policy, carousel fraud, e-government, technology

How can governments reduce the prevalence of cross-border tax fraud? This paper argues that the use of digital technologies offers an opportunity to reduce fraud and increase government revenue. Using data on intra...

The Great Lockdown: International Risk Sharing Through Trade and Policy Coordination

The Great Lockdown: International Risk Sharing Through Trade and Policy Coordination »

Volume/Issue: 2020/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philipp Engler , Nathalie Pouokam , Diego Rodriguez Guzman , and Irina Yakadina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513560182.001

ISBN: 9781513560182

Keywords: Consumption, Terms of trade, Labor, Consumption taxes, COVID-19 , Great Lockown, epidemic, trade, optimal containment, cooperation

Voluntary and government-mandated lockdowns in response to COVID-19 have caused causing drastic reductions in economic activity around the world. We present a parsimonious two-country-SIR model with some degree of...