The staff report for the Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PGRF) highlights Nepal’s economic outcomes and macroeconomic policies. Financing needs and logistics of the peace process pose continuing challenges. Macroeconomic stability remains intact, but the speed of structural reform implementation has been slow. Macroeconomic policies remain anchored and the authorities are aware of the need for further structural reforms. Financial sector reforms can help improve intermediation and financial stability.
Over the past several years, Nepal has pursued a prudent fiscal policy, which has resulted in a significant reduction of public debt as a percentage of GDP. This paper reexamines the fiscal stance in Nepal in light of recent developments. The optimal level of the fiscal deficit is constrained by the need to achieve and sustain a debt-to-GDP ratio with an acceptable level of vulnerability to distress. The debt sustainability analyses (DSA) framework focuses on the net present value (NPV) of external public and publicly guaranteed debt, though public debt is also analyzed.