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Ruchir Agarwal and Ms. Gita Gopinath
Urgent steps are needed to arrest the rising human toll and economic strain from the COVID-19 pandemic that are exacerbating already-diverging recoveries. Pandemic policy is also economic policy as there is no durable end to the economic crisis without an end to the health crisis. Building on existing initiatives, this paper proposes pragmatic actions at the national and multilateral level to expeditiously defeat the pandemic. The proposal targets: (1) vaccinating at least 40 percent of the population in all countries by the end of 2021 and at least 60 percent by the first half of 2022, (2) tracking and insuring against downside risks, and (3) ensuring widespread testing and tracing, maintaining adequate stocks of therapeutics, and enforcing public health measures in places where vaccine coverage is low. The benefits of such measures at about $9 trillion far outweigh the costs which are estimated to be around $50 billion—of which $35 billion should be paid by grants from donors and the residual by national governments potentially with the support of concessional financing from bilateral and multilateral agencies. The grant funding gap identified by the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator amounts to about $22 billion, which the G20 recognizes as important to address. This leaves an estimated $13 billion in additional grant contributions needed to finance our proposal. Importantly, the strategy requires global cooperation to secure upfront financing, upfront vaccine donations, and at-risk investment to insure against downside risks for the world.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This first edition of the IMF Glossary: English-French-Portuguese contains approximately 3,000 records that are believed to be the most useful to translators dealing with IMF material. The main body of the Glossary consists of terms, phraseological units, and institutional titles covering areas such as macroeconomics, money and banking, public finance, taxation, balance of payments, statistics, accounting, and economic development. It contains terminology relating to the IMF’s organization and operations, as well as from the Articles of Agreement, By-Laws, Rules and Regulations, and other major IMF publications. Easy to use: since the Glossary is concept-based, synonyms are consolidated into one single entry. Cross-references refer to the main entry under which the various synonyms are listed (“see”) and also draw the user’s attention to terms that are related but not synonyms (“see also”). Currency units of countries and monetary unions, an IMF organizational chart in the three languages, and color-coded French and Portuguese indexes are provided in appendixes.