The Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund were adopted at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (Bretton Woods, New Hampshire) on July 22, 1944. They were originally accepted by 29 countries and since then have been signed and ratified by a total of 189 Member countries. As the charter of the organization, the Articles lay out the Fund’s purposes, which include the promotion of “international monetary cooperation through a permanent institution which provides the machinery for consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems”. The Articles also establish the mandate of the Organization and its members’ rights and obligations, its governance structure and roles of its organs, and lays out various rules of operations including those related to the conduct of its operations and transactions regarding the Special Drawing Rights. The key functions of the IMF are the surveillance of the international monetary system and the monitoring of members’ economic and financial policies, the provision of Fund resources to member countries in need, and the delivery of technical assistance and financial services.
Since their adoption in 1944, the Articles of Agreement have been amended seven times, with the latest amendment adopted on December 15, 2010 (effective January 26, 2016). The Articles are complemented by the By-laws of the Fund adopted by the Board of Governors, themselves being supplemented by the Rules and Regulations adopted by the Executive Board.
The paper provides an overall view of communications across various areas of economic policy, aiming to help country authorities as they increasingly use communications as a policy tool in its own right. The paper identifies frontier communications challenges, drawing on a large body of research on the salient issues. Although communications can never be a substitute for good policies, economic reforms are more likely to fail or even be reversed if they are not understood or accepted by those whom they affect.
Mr. Mario de Zamaroczy, Mr. Vincent Fleuriet, and Mr. Jose G Gijon
This paper discusses possible reserve management approaches in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The paper looks beyond the region’s current oil crisis and proposes a new approach to international reserve management in the medium term.
Against the background of the pandemic shock, a coup d’état on August 18, 2020 led to a period of international disengagement with Mali and an economic blockade by ECOWAS until the appointment of a transitional government in October. Fund engagement was also put on hold during this period, delaying the resumption of discussions under the 2nd and 3rd reviews of the ECF. The transitional government, which will be in place for 18 months until general elections, announced its full adherence to the international obligations and commitments of the previous government, including the reform agenda under the ECF.
While macroeconomic policies in recent years have succeeded in restoring
elements of macroeconomic stability under difficult circumstances, macroeconomic
conditions are nonetheless precarious. The recent fall in commodity prices, new spending
initiatives, and looser spending oversight during the political transition period have led to a
weaker fiscal position mostly financed by the central bank. In that context, international
reserves have fallen to critically low levels (one week of import coverage). Balance of
payments needs remain both urgent and protracted.