Rupa Duttagupta, Mr. Cem Karacadag, and Mrs. Gilda C Fernandez
Un nombre croissant de pays adoptent des régimes de taux de change flexible car la flexibilité assure une meilleure protection contre les chocs externes et donne plus d'indépendance à la politique monétaire. Ailleurs, la transition se fait parfois de façon désordonnée, avec une forte dépréciation de la monnaie lors d'une crise. Quel que soit le motif de l'adoption d'un taux de change flexible, la réussite de la transition dépend de la bonne gestion de plusieurs aspects institutionnels et opérationnels. Les auteurs de ce numéro des Dossiers économiques décrivent les éléments nécessaires pour passer un régime flexible, ainsi que la cadence et l'ordre idéal de ces éléments dans différentes circonstances.
The Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund were adopted at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (Bretton Woods, New Hampshire) on July 22, 1944. They were originally accepted by 29 countries and since then have been signed and ratified by a total of 189 Member countries. As the charter of the organization, the Articles lay out the Fund’s purposes, which include the promotion of “international monetary cooperation through a permanent institution which provides the machinery for consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems”. The Articles also establish the mandate of the Organization and its members’ rights and obligations, its governance structure and roles of its organs, and lays out various rules of operations including those related to the conduct of its operations and transactions regarding the Special Drawing Rights. The key functions of the IMF are the surveillance of the international monetary system and the monitoring of members’ economic and financial policies, the provision of Fund resources to member countries in need, and the delivery of technical assistance and financial services.
Since their adoption in 1944, the Articles of Agreement have been amended seven times, with the latest amendment adopted on December 15, 2010 (effective January 26, 2016). The Articles are complemented by the By-laws of the Fund adopted by the Board of Governors, themselves being supplemented by the Rules and Regulations adopted by the Executive Board.
This volume sets out the IMF’s By-Laws, which are adopted under the authority of, and are intended to be complementary to, the IMF’s Articles of Agreement, which are considered to prevail in the event of any conflict. The By-Laws cover a number of topics, including the size and composition of the IMF’s Board of Governors and Executive Board, applications for IMF membership, IMF quotas, voting rights, staff regulations, and the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights.