This paper discusses Chad’s 2019 Article IV Consultation, Fourth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement, Request for Modification of Performance Criteria, and Financing Assurances Review. Article IV discussions focused on policy priorities to deal with legacies from the crisis and the longstanding structural weaknesses. Reducing government domestic debt and domestic arrears would address key impediments to growth that persist from the crisis. Sustained efforts are needed to increase non-oil revenues, improve the efficiency and quality of public spending, and reduce the vulnerability of the fiscal position to oil price fluctuations. Performance under the ECF-supported program has been broadly satisfactory with continued improvement in the fiscal position and progress in implementing structural reforms in spite recent delays. Overall economic activity strengthened in 2018; however, further reform efforts are needed to support the recovery in the non-oil sector and improve social conditions. Chad’s program is supported by the implementation of policies and reforms by the regional institutions which are critical to its success.
This paper highlights Chad’s Fifth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Financing Assurances Review. Chad’s performance under the Fund’s ECF-supported program has been broadly satisfactory, reflecting strong commitment by the authorities despite a challenging environment, including security concerns and a tense social situation. Good progress on the structural reform agenda has been made, despite some delays. Looking ahead, it is essential that the authorities continue to pursue prudent fiscal policy, particularly in the run up to the upcoming elections, create enough fiscal space for increased social and development spending, and pay down domestic debt and arrears. Chad’s program is supported by the implementation of supportive policies and reforms by the regional institutions in the areas of foreign exchange regulations and monetary policy framework and to support an increase in regional net foreign assets, which are critical to the program’s success.
The Republic of Congo was hit hard by the oil price shock and delayed fiscal adjustment, amidst governance challenges and unsustainable debt. While program negotiations were long and complex, the authorities made decisive progress in 2018 and early 2019 with decisive fiscal consolidation, and the implementation of a large package of structural reforms, including two rounds of prior actions to improve governance and transparency. In addition, financing assurances have been secured.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept. and International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.
Le document Fiscalité des entreprises dans l'économie mondiale insiste sur la nécessité de préserver et de mettre à profit les progrès de la coopération fiscale internationale accomplis ces dernières années qui, sur certains points, sont actuellement menacés. Le document accorde une attention particulière à la situation des pays en développement, et examine plusieurs options envisagées pour que les pays, en particulier les pays à faible revenu, puissent continuer de recouvrer des impôts sur les bénéfices tirés d'activités multinationales.
This note aims to inform governments on how to account for tax expenditures and use that information in fiscal management. The emphasis is on developing and emerging market economies, where the use of such accounts is in its infancy because of data constraints, insufficient human and financial resources, and weak fiscal institutions. Most developing economies, more-over, do not have tax policy units in their Ministry of Finance to provide analytical support to the govern¬ment and legislature that integrates all revenue policy aspects. As a result, the tax policy framework can be fragmented: line ministries compete in the provision of sectoral tax incentives, but do not report on their cost.
The note is organized as follows. The second section outlines the role that tax expenditure measurement and reporting can play in fiscal management. The third section provides a step-by-step approach on how tax expenditure accounts can be built, with emphasis on data, methods and models, and institutional requirements. The section is concerned primarily with the direct cost of tax expenditures—that is, the revenue forgone because of them. It does not deal with their indirect costs, which could include economic efficiency losses and additional tax administration resources, and it does not address assessment of the benefits of tax expenditures. The fourth summarizes the current sta¬tus of tax expenditure reporting in developing econo¬mies, with some reference to advanced economies. The last section concludes.