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International Monetary Fund

The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.

International Monetary Fund

The staff report for the Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement on the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia highlights economic developments and policies. FYR of Macedonia’s economic performance since independence has been marked by notable achievements in macroeconomic management, as well as some disappointments in the area of structural reforms. Inflation was brought down from hyperinflation levels to the low single digits by the de facto exchange rate peg, which was sustained in spite of sometimes challenging circumstances.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

The Gambian economy is still recovering from the severe drought and crop failure. Depreciation pressure on the Dalasi has largely been driven by weaknesses in the balance of payments and uncertainty about exchange rate policy. Executive Directors have urged the government to curb domestic borrowing and to sustain the fiscal adjustment needed to reduce the high cost and risks of domestic debt. They have also commended the progress achieved toward eliminating fiscal dominance and encourage implementing a restrained monetary policy.

International Monetary Fund

The Gambia’s 2008 Article IV Consultation and Third Review Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility are discussed. A sharp appreciation of the dalasi in 2007 has mitigated the impact of increases in world food and oil prices. The authorities’ response to the continuing rise in these world prices has been measured; while eliminating sales tax on the rise, they have raised other taxes to compensate for the revenue loss. Petroleum product prices have been adjusted to eliminate an implicit subsidy and bring them in line with import costs.

Mr. Andrew Baer, Mr. Kwangwon Lee, and James Tebrake
Digitalization and the innovative use of digital technologies is changing the way we work, learn, communicate, buy and sell products. One emerging digital technology of growing importance is cloud computing. More and more businesses, governments and households are purchasing hardware and software services from a small number of large cloud computing providers. This change is having an impact on how macroeconomic data are compiled and how they are interpreted by users. Specifically, this is changing the information and communication technology (ICT) investment pattern from one where ICT investment was diversified across many industries to a more concentrated investment pattern. Additionally, this is having an impact on cross-border flows of commercial services since the cloud service provider does not need to be located in the same economic territory as the purchaser of cloud services. This paper will outline some of the methodological and compilation challenges facing statisticians and analysts, provide some tools that can be used to overcome these challenges and highlight some of the implications these changes are having on the way users of national accounts data look at investment and trade in commercial services.
International Monetary Fund

This paper discusses the request from Gambian authorities for a three-year arrangement under the extended credit facility (ECF). The Gambian economy performed well during the previous IMF arrangement, which expired at the end of March 2011; however, there were slippages under the program. The authorities requested a new three-year ECF arrangement, with a large initial disbursement, but relatively low access overall. The initial disbursement would support stability during the current drought crisis, while remaining disbursements would encourage fiscal adjustment and catalyze donor support for the poverty reduction strategy.

International Monetary Fund

This 2001 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economic performance of Costa Rica weakened in 2000. Real GDP growth slowed to 1.7 percent, from more than 8 percent a year in 1998–99, reflecting in part deterioration in terms of trade, the end of the construction phase of a large foreign direct investment project by Intel, and the effect of high real interest rates on domestic demand. Inflation remained at 10 percent during the year. In the structural area, the assembly approved legislation to open up the telecommunications and electricity sectors to private investment.