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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper examines the policy implications of structural changes in financial markets. Domestic financial markets have become less segmented, and the major financial centers more integrated. At the same time, the structural changes in financial markets have improved efficiency by lowering intermediation costs, increasing the ability to hedge financial risks associated with currency, interest rate, and price volatility and opening up access to new sources of savings. The widespread application of computer and telecommunications technology to financial markets has permitted markets to process a significantly larger volume of transactions.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Abstract

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (national, state, local). Topics covered include deficit/surplus or total financing, revenues or grants, expenditures, lending minus repayments, domestic financing, foreign financing, domestic debt or total debt, and foreign debt. The Yearbook provides data on budgetary operations, extra-budgetary operations, social security, and consolidated financial operations of central governments. A section of the Government Finance Statistics Yearbook is devoted to a cross-country comparison of data.

International Monetary Fund
Poverty has been a major challenge for Liberia. All developmental, governance, and social indicators have shown improvement as a result of a more robust implementation strategy led by the government with the support of development partners, civil society, and the private sector. The general economic condition has improved. However, enormous challenges remain for crafting of the next development strategy to fill any potential gap in development planning, the mobilizing and strategically placing of the private sector at the heart of economic growth and job creation.
International Monetary Fund
This report assesses the design, implementation, and effectiveness of Liberia’s first Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS). The PRS described the objectives for each pillar and sector, often with numerical projections, and these were essentially the intended outcomes. The Economic Corridors study and anecdotal evidence suggest that the initial emphasis on providing inputs to stimulate production brought farmers up against constraints in storage, transport and marketing, leading them to pull back on production after they encountered difficulty in selling their produce.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The analysis focuses on the effectiveness of the regulatory, supervisory, and oversight frameworks for central counterparties (CCPs) and central securities depositories (CSDs) in the European Union (EU) as these are essential for financial stability. Cooperation between authorities within and outside the EU is critical to reduce the risks related to the cross-border nature of clearing and settlement within the EU. In this context, crisis management arrangements among EU authorities are of key importance to adequately fulfill the various responsibilities that authorities may have in relation to CCPs and CSDs in crisis situations.
International Monetary Fund
Liberia made slow progress on the implementation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS). The impact of the global economic crisis affected implementation and slowed the pace of growth. With the development of the Public Financial Management (PFM) framework, a PRS deliverable, the credibility of the country’s financial systems is being restored. Increased vigilance in tax collection efforts, expansion of the tax base, and the elimination of discretionary exceptions led to a rise in revenue by 13.5 percent from US$207 million in fiscal year (FY) 2007/08 to US$235 million in FY2008/09.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses implementation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) in Liberia. Liberia’s PRS articulates the government’s overall vision and major strategies for moving toward rapid, inclusive, and sustainable growth and development during the period 2008–11. This paper provides the context for the PRS by describing the conflict and economic collapse, the transition beyond conflict, and the initial progress achieved during the past two years. It stresses that Liberia must create much greater economic and political opportunities for all its citizens and ensure that growth and development are widely shared.
Mr. Luis M. Cubeddu
This paper provides a quantitative evaluation of the intracohort redistributive elements of the U.S. social security system in the context of a computable general equilibrium model. It determines how the well-being of individuals that differ by gender, race, and education is affected by the government’s social security policy. Differences in life expectancy and labor productivity translate into differences in capital accumulation and labor supply distortions that are responsible for the observed welfare difference between individuals of the same age cohort.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

'Crisis Shakes Europe: Stark Choices Ahead' looks at the harsh toll of the crisis on both Europe's advanced and emerging economies because of the global nature of the shocks that have hit both the financial sector and the real economy, and because of Europe's strong regional and global trade links. Marek Belka, Director of the IMF's European Department, writes in our lead article that beyond the immediate need for crisis management, Europe must revisit the frameworks on which the European Union is based because many have been revealed to be flawed or missing. But in many respects, one key European institution has proved its mettle—the euro. Both Charles Wyplosz and Barry Eichengreen discuss the future of the common currency. Also in this issue, IMF economists rank the current recession as the most severe in the postwar period; John Lipsky, the Fund's First Deputy Managing Director, examines the IMF's role in a postcrisis world; and Giovanni Dell'Ariccia assesses what we have learned about how to manage asset price booms to prevent the bust that has caused such havoc. In addition, we talk to Oxford economist Paul Collier about how to help low-income countries during the current crisis, while Donald Kaberuka, President of the African Development Bank, writes about how African policymakers can prepare to take advantage of a global economic recovery. 'Picture This' looks at what happens when aggressive monetary policy combats a crisis; 'Back to Basics' gives a primer on fiscal policy; and 'Data Spotlight' takes a look at the recent large swings in commodity prices.