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International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper for Canada presents comprehensive and broad-based analysis of the role of domestic and external shocks. Canada’s economic history illustrates the important role played by external as well as domestic macroeconomic disturbances. Canada’s economy slowed in 2001 because of the global slowdown, although by less than in many other countries. In 2003, the recovery has been interrupted by a series of shocks that moderated growth. Fluctuations in Canadian real GDP are explained by external and domestic cycles.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Central Bank of Chile (CBC) has implemented broadly advanced transparency practices. This reflects the CBC’s strong public commitment to transparency, which is anchored in the law and has been designated by the CBC as a strategic objective to fulfill its mandate. This policy has earned the CBC the broad trust of its stakeholders and has paid significant dividends for the CBC in terms of safeguarding its autonomy and ensuring its policy effectiveness.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
At the request of the Central Bank of Uruguay (BCU), and with the support of the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF’s) Western Hemisphere Department (WHD), a monetary and financial statistics (MFS) technical assistance (TA) mission from the IMF’s Statistics Department (STA) visited Montevideo during February 3-14, 2020. The main objectives of the mission were to: (i) review available source data for other financial corporations (OFC); in particular, insurance corporations (IC), pension funds (PF), and credit administration companies (CAC); and (ii) compile standardized monetary statistics for OFC (report form SRF 4SR) in line with the 2016 Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual and Compilation Guide (MFSMCG). The officials met during the mission are listed in Appendix I.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
There have been significant improvements to the legal framework and the supervisory process since the last Basel Core Principles (BCP) review; some additional recommended enhancements are highlighted in this assessment. The Superintendency of Financial Institutions (SFC) is an integrated supervisor with a purview that includes banks, finance companies, insurance, securities, and other financial intermediaries. Additionally, the SFC is also the bank resolution authority. To strengthen consolidated supervision, Congress passed Financial Conglomerates Law (FCL) 1870 addressing the supervision of financial conglomerates and granting the SFC supervisory authority over financial conglomerates (CF).2 The FCL strengthened the framework for consolidated supervision, which already included banks and their subsidiaries, by adding holding companies as supervised entities. Moreover, it defined the scope of supervision of financial conglomerates, setting standards with regards to risk management, adequate capital, and corporate governance, as well as minimum requirements for managing concentration risks and conflicts of interest in intragroup and related party exposures. The SFC has strong coordination and cooperation arrangements with foreign supervisors (through signed Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) and the coordination mechanisms derived from the CCSBSO, among others) as well as the authority to request information from parent companies, all of which were further enhanced with the issuance of the FCL. Additionally, the SFC has access and authority to require information from ultimate beneficial owners.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper highlights Uruguay’s Central Bank Transparency Code (CBT) Review. The Central Bank of Uruguay (BCU) is implementing transparency practices that are broadly aligned with the good practices for central banks. Improving communication with domestic and international stakeholders is a significant pillar of the medium-term strategic plan. The well-developed communication framework and architecture were assessed to be comprehensive in this IMF CBT review. While general information about its legal structure and mandate are disclosed, enhanced transparency about the scope and depth of institutional, personal, and financial autonomy could be improved. The annual report and website contain the core information, but some important elements require complete information or simpler translations from the legal language. Additional transparency in some areas of governance is needed to enhance institutional accountability. The BCU has developed a transparent and efficient system to safeguard the rights of financial consumers. The BCU has put in place a model system on consumer protection that inspires public confidence and trust.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Bank of Canada (BOC) sets a high benchmark for transparency, which is recognized by its stakeholders, thus maintaining a high level of trust and accountability. The BOC’s transparency practices are broadly aligned with expanded and comprehensive practices as defined by the IMF Central Bank Transparency Code (see Table 1). This is acknowledged by the BOC’s external stakeholders, who view the central bank as an open, dynamic, and transparent public institution.
Gongpil Choi, Federico Ortega, and Mr. Manmohan Singh
What are the constraints that have stalled EMs efforts to reuse their securities in international financial centers? We discuss the economics of collateral re-use and the present institutional structure in Asian and Latin American countries. Our empirical investigation suggests pledgeability enhances financial stability and reduces dollar funding risk. We also explain the Eurozone collateral pool to incentivize EMs, and why many securities (e.g., BTPs, Italy) are acceptable in London but not EM securities. Looking forward, EMs liaison with International Central Securities Depositories (ICSDs), and global banks’ balance sheet capacity to intermediate cross-border collateral will be crucial for this market to develop.
International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper focuses on policies to promote high, sustainable growth in Peru, the risks posed by dollarization, and key medium-term fiscal issues of decentralization and social security reform. The paper identifies the main impediments to output and employment growth and proposes steps to remove them. It uses a balance sheet approach to analyze Peru’s highly dollarized economy, and finds that the factors explaining Peru’s relatively low international trade levels are related to the impediments to growth. The paper also looks at the main impediments to high, sustainable output, and employment growth in Peru.