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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes Ecuador’s fiscal policy using the concepts of the fiscal stance and fiscal impulse adjusted for movements in the real effective exchange rate. It finds that fiscal policy has been expansionary in 2000 and 2001. The paper shows that the growth of gross fixed investment was relatively strong during the 1970s; thereafter it slowed, particularly in the public sector. The paper also explores the evolution of oil reserves in recent years and the projections for the medium term.
International Monetary Fund
The Indian economy has recovered strongly. The government's poverty alleviation programs have focused on generation of employment in rural areas. The overall deficit of the consolidated public sector has risen sharply in recent years, erasing most of the consolidation that was achieved during the first half of the 1990s. The paper discusses the monetary and financial market developments, reforms and performance, external sector, trade policy, and structural policy developments in India. The new government has taken a number of initiatives committed to structural reform.
International Monetary Fund
This report describes Papua New Guinea's recent economic developments by assessing its output and price developments. The paper discusses the central government finances, tax and expenditure policies, the public sector reform program, and pension funds. The study also analyzes the institutional and operational aspects of the Bank of Papua New Guinea under the central banking act; instruments of monetary policy; and monetary policy and developments. The report reviews the nature and operation of the foreign exchange market, developments in the balance of payments, and external debt trends.
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides background information to the IMF staff report for the 1998 Article IV Consultation discussions with Panama. It focuses on areas of interest in Panama’s medium-term economic strategy, and gives a broad overview of economic developments with emphasis on 1997. It updates information on important areas of economic activity: the structure and reform of the financial sector; reversion of the Canal Zone areas to Panama; and analysis of key elements of the economic reform program since 1994, including trade reform and other measures to foster competitiveness and competition.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Venezuela during 1995–97. The overall public sector balance shifted from a deficit of 7 percent of GDP in 1995 to a surplus of 7¼ percent of GDP in 1996. This massive swing was owing to a major increase in the underlying oil surplus, a decline in the non-oil underlying deficit, and the fact that virtually no financial assistance was provided to the banking system, compared with the cumulative 16½ percent of GDP provided in 1994–95 in the context of the banking crisis.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Nepal during 1990–97. With a new government coming to office in December 1994, progress on structural reforms stalled in 1994/95 and financial policies weakened. GDP growth slowed to 2.9 percent, reflecting adverse conditions in agriculture. The external situation deteriorated further in the first quarter of 1995/96 in part because interest rates in Nepal did not rise in line with rates in India, where monetary policy had tightened. Following a further change in government in September 1995, steps were taken to address the emerging macroeconomic imbalances.
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides background information to the IMF staff report for the 1996 Article IV Consultation discussions with Panama. It presents an overview of economic developments in Panama during 1995, focusing on areas of interest in Panama’s medium-term economic strategy. It describes the changes in labor legislation aimed at increasing labor market flexibility. The paper summarizes developments in the tax system, focusing on the changes brought about by the Tax Incentives Harmonization Law of June 1995. The issues confronting the Panamanian social security system are also described.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in the Philippines during 1990–95. By 1994, all the elements for a strong recovery had finally fallen into place. Gross National Product (GNP) growth accelerated to 5 percent, fueled by a strong performance of investment and export-oriented manufacturing. Based on this favorable composition of growth, and a near 50 percent increase in remittances, the balance of payments improved. In stark contrast to the earlier recovery, the current account deficit narrowed by 1 percentage point to 4½ percent of GNP.
International Monetary Fund
This paper analyzes economic developments in Costa Rica during the 1990s. The paper highlights that the government of Costa Rica initiated an economic program for 1991–92 aimed at lowering inflation, strengthening the balance of payments, and setting the stage for sustained economic growth. These objectives were to be achieved through restrained financial policies, an exchange rate policy aimed at maintaining export competitiveness, and liberalization of prices, international trade, and the exchange system. The reduction in the combined public sector deficit in 1991 was accompanied by a tightening of monetary policy.