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International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
Finance & Development, September 2020
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Iraq is an oil-dependent and state-dominated fragile economy that has been hit hard by the conflict with ISIS and the fall in oil prices. The conflict has hurt the economy through displacement and impoverishment of millions of people, and destruction of infrastructure and assets. The oil price decline has resulted in a massive reduction in budget revenue, pushing the fiscal deficit to an unsustainable level. The authorities are responding to the crisis with ambitious but necessary fiscal adjustment while maintaining their commitment to the exchange rate peg, which provides a key nominal anchor in a highly uncertain environment.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The past year has been a time of unexpected challenges for the international community, International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Christine Lagarde says in her foreword to the institution’s Annual Report 2015—Tackling Challenges Together, published today. Amid the continued focus on spurring stronger and more inclusive growth and strengthening global cooperation, the IMF faced economic developments that required rapid adjustments. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included insight into the international impact of falling oil prices, financing and policy advice for countries in difficulties, emergency funding to combat the Ebola crisis in West Africa, a new relief fund for the poor and most vulnerable countries hit by natural or public health disasters, research on fiscal policy to reduce inequality, free online training for the public and government officials, and online statistical data free of charge for all users. The report covers the work of the IMF’s Executive Board and contains financial statements for the year May 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015. It describes the IMF’s support for its 188 member countries, with an emphasis on the core areas of IMF responsibility: assessing their economic and financial policies, providing financing where needed, and building capacity in key areas of economic policy.

International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Abstract

The IMF has released the 2013 External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users (2013 EDS Guide), which contains updated global standards for the compilation, reporting, and analytical use of external debt statistics. The 2013 EDS Guide was prepared under the responsibility of the nine organizations in the Inter-Agency Task Force on Finance Statistics (TFFS), in close consultation with national compilers of external debt, balance of payments, and international investment position statistics. [1] The 2013 EDS Guide reflects the significant developments in international finance since the issuance of the 2003 EDS Guide. The 2013 EDS Guide provides guidance on (1) the concepts, definitions, and classifications of external debt data; (2) the sources and techniques for compiling these data; and (3) the analytical uses of these data. The concepts set out in the 2013 EDS Guide are fully harmonized with those of the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) and the sixth edition of the IMF’s Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual (BPM6). [1] The TFFS is chaired by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and its member agencies are the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the Commonwealth Secretariat (ComSec), the European Central Bank (ECB), the European Commission (Eurostat), the IMF, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Paris Club Secretariat, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and the World Bank.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This year, we mark the 70th anniversary of the IMF and World Bank and the 50th anniversary of F&D. The world has seen a staggering amount of change in the past seven decades. So, with these two anniversaries in mind we focused our attention on the transformation of the global economy—looking back and looking ahead. What will the global economy look like in another 70 years? Five Nobel laureates—George Akerlof, Paul Krugman, Robert Solow, Michael Spence, and Joseph Stiglitz—share their thoughts on which single “frontier” issue promises to shape the economic landscape in the years ahead. In “A World of Change,” Ayhan Kose and Ezgi Ozturk chart the economic transformations of the past 70 years. Martin Wolf looks at the perils and promise of globalization in “Shaping Globalization.” IMF Chief Christine Lagarde charts a course for the IMF in the next decade in Straight Talk IMF Chief Economist Olivier Blanchard distills the lessons of the 2008 global financial crisis in “Where Danger Lurks.” This issue also features cartoonist Nick Galifianakis and Joe Procopio telling the story of the IMF’s origins in a seven-page comic. The People in Economics series profiles a giant in economics—Nobel winner and Stanford professor Ken Arrow, who built on an early passion for math and work in meteorology during World War II to launch a storied career in economics. Articles on the future of energy in the global economy by Jeffrey Ball and on measuring inequality—the most hotly debated economic issue of recent days—by Jonathan Ostry and Andrew Berg round out the package.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The IMF's 2012 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2012, which covers the period from May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. The print version of the Report is available in eight languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish), along with a CD-ROM (available in English only) that includes the Report text and ancillary materials, including the Fund's Financial Statements for FY2012.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
“Asia Leading the Way” explores how the region is moving into a leadership role in the world economy. The issue looks at Asia’s biggest economy, China, which has relied heavily on exports to grow, and its need to increase domestic demand and to promote global integration if it is to continue to thrive. China is not the only Asian economy that heavily depends on exports and all of them might take some cues from the region’s second-biggest economy, India, which has a highly developed services sector. Min Zhu, the new Special Advisor to the IMF’s Managing Director, talks about Asia in the global economy, the global financial crisis, correcting imbalances, and the IMF in Asia. And “People in Economics” profiles an Asian crusader for corporate governance, Korea’s Jang Hasung. This issue of F&D also covers how best to reform central banking in the aftermath of the global economic crisis; the pernicious effects of derivatives trading on municipal government finances in Europe and the United States; and some ominous news for governments hoping to rely on better times to help them reduce their debt burdens. Mohamed El-Erian argues that sovereign wealth funds are well-placed to navigate the new global economy that will emerge following the world wide recession. “Back to Basics” explains supply and demand. “Data Spotlight” explores the continuing weakness in bank credit. And “Picture This” focuses on the high, and growing, cost of energy subsidies.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This issue of F&D looks at the growing role of emerging markets. Analysis by the IMF's Ayhan Kose and Eswar Prasad, professor of trade policy at Cornell University, argues that their economic ascendance will enable emerging markets such as Brazil, China, India, and Russia to play a more significant part in global economic governance and take on more responsibility for economic and financial stability. And Vivek Arora and Athanasios Vamvakidis measure how China's economy is increasingly affecting the rest of the world not just its neighbors and main trading partners. In addition, F&D examines a variety of topics that are particularly relevant as the world struggles to shake off the crisis. Alan Blinder and Mark Zandi look at the positive effects of stimulus in the United States. Without it, they say, the United States would still be in recession. IMF researchers look at how countries can get debt under control, and what happens when government debt is downgraded. Other articles examine the human costs of unemployment, how inequality can lead over time to financial crisis, and what changes in the way banks do business could mean for the financial system. Two articles look at Islamic banking, which was put to the test during the global crisis and proved its mettle, and in Faces of the Crisis Revisited, we continue to track how the recession affected several individuals around the world. This issue of F&D profiles Princeton economic theorist Avinash Dixit in the regular People in Economics feature, and Back to Basics looks at externalities.