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Appendix 1: Data Sources and Methodology

Appendix 1: Data Sources and Methodology »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

The source for real GDP and investment data for Iran is the latest Central Bank of Iran database; for the rest of the countries, the source is the International Financial Statistics database. The source for...

APPENDIX 1. Estimating Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in the Baltics in a Cointegration Framework

APPENDIX 1. Estimating Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in the Baltics in a Cointegration Framework »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

This appendix considers the behavior of real effective exchange rates (REERs) in the Baltics over the period 1994–2002. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework that encompa...

Appendix 2: Productivity Growth in Iran and Its Trading Partner Countries, 1993–2002

Appendix 2: Productivity Growth in Iran and Its Trading Partner Countries, 1993–2002 »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Productivity Growth in Iran and its Trading Partner Countries, 1993–2002 (Average annual percentage change, unless otherwise indicated)...

Appendix 4: Subsidies

Appendix 4: Subsidies »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Explicit subsidies include budgetary subsidies to households for essential commodities, such as wheat, rice, oil, sugar, milk, and cheese; imports of medical equipment and pharmaceuticals; fertilizers; and s...

Appendix 3: The Oil Stabilization Fund

Appendix 3: The Oil Stabilization Fund »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

The Oil Stabilization Fund (OSF) was established in December 2000 with the objective of insulating the budget from fluctuations in oil prices. The fund was established as a foreign currency account at the ce...

The Baltics
			: Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063266.058

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Large current account deficits in Estonia and Latvia, and the continued real appreciation of the exchange rate in Lithuania, have prompted concerns about the competitiveness of the Baltic economies, and called into...

Chapter 4: Approaches to Assessing the Exchange Rate Level

Chapter 4: Approaches to Assessing the Exchange Rate Level »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Following a long period of multiple and unstable exchange rates in Iran, the exchange rate was successfully unified in March 2002. Since then, Iran has adopted a managed float exchange rate regime and elimin...

Chapter 2. Assessing Competitiveness

Chapter 2. Assessing Competitiveness »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

This chapter assesses developments in the Baltic countries’ external competitiveness by reviewing a range of standard indicators. These include price-and cost-based measures of the real effective exchange ra...

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Policy Implications

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Policy Implications »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Since 1999, real effective exchange rates in the Baltics have been quite stable compared to the strong real appreciations experienced earlier in the transition process. REER indicators based on measures of r...

Chapter 1: Economic Growth

Chapter 1: Economic Growth »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Iran faces the challenge of increasing its growth rate to reduce unemployment and improve the living standards of its population over the medium term. Growth performance in recent years (6 percent during 200...