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APPENDIX 1. Estimating Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in the Baltics in a Cointegration Framework

APPENDIX 1. Estimating Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in the Baltics in a Cointegration Framework »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

This appendix considers the behavior of real effective exchange rates (REERs) in the Baltics over the period 1994–2002. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework that encompa...

Appendix I. Interest Rate Convergence in Countries with a Currency Board Arrangement

Appendix I. Interest Rate Convergence in Countries with a Currency Board Arrangement »

Source: Currency Board Arrangements : Issues and Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch , and Tomás Baliño

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756688

Keywords: exchange rate, central bank, inflation, foreign exchange, reserve requirements

One main benefit of a CBA is to facilitate the convergence of domestic interest rates to international levels. This appendix describes interest rate convergence processes in Argenti...

Appendix II. Lender of Last Resort and Banking Crisis Management

Appendix II. Lender of Last Resort and Banking Crisis Management »

Source: Currency Board Arrangements : Issues and Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch , and Tomás Baliño

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756688

Keywords: exchange rate, central bank, inflation, foreign exchange, reserve requirements

Although currency boards during the colonial period were constrained from providing LOLR support, major commercial banks, which were foreign owned, could rely on their headquarters...

Appendix III. Monetary Policy Implementation

Appendix III. Monetary Policy Implementation »

Source: Currency Board Arrangements : Issues and Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch , and Tomás Baliño

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756688

Keywords: exchange rate, central bank, inflation, foreign exchange, reserve requirements

As noted in the main body of the paper, experience suggests that monetary operations can play a useful role in smoothing day-to-day monetary conditions or accelerating adjustment to...

Appendix IV. Background Tables

Appendix IV. Background Tables »

Source: Currency Board Arrangements : Issues and Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch , and Tomás Baliño

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756688

Keywords: exchange rate, central bank, inflation, foreign exchange, reserve requirements

Table 1. Basic Description of Eight Currency Board Arrangements...

The Baltics
			: Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063266.058

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Large current account deficits in Estonia and Latvia, and the continued real appreciation of the exchange rate in Lithuania, have prompted concerns about the competitiveness of the Baltic economies, and called into...

Chapter 2. Assessing Competitiveness

Chapter 2. Assessing Competitiveness »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

This chapter assesses developments in the Baltic countries’ external competitiveness by reviewing a range of standard indicators. These include price-and cost-based measures of the real effective exchange ra...

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Policy Implications

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Policy Implications »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Since 1999, real effective exchange rates in the Baltics have been quite stable compared to the strong real appreciations experienced earlier in the transition process. REER indicators based on measures of r...

Chapter 4. Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates

Chapter 4. Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Whether or not recent movements in real exchange rates are a cause for concern depends on whether they reflect underlying changes in equilibrium exchange rates. This chapter therefore considers a range of fa...

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Concerns about the competitiveness of the Baltic economies have reemerged, as current account deficits have widened in Estonia and Latvia, and the real exchange rate has continued to appreciate in Lithuania....