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Addendum. Exchange System Reforms in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Note on Past and Current Experiences

Addendum. Exchange System Reforms in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Note on Past and Current Experiences »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

In the wake of the revolution in Iran and the subsequent conflict with Iraq, a complex, heavily controlled foreign exchange system emerged to support the conflict efforts. This system featured several exchan...

Addendum. Implementation of the European Union Association Agreements

Addendum. Implementation of the European Union Association Agreements »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

As described in Chapter 11, three Middle Eastern and North African countries—Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia—so far have signed EU Association Agreements. This addendum summarizes developments in these countrie...

Addendum. Recent Developments in Islamic Banking

Addendum. Recent Developments in Islamic Banking »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

The purpose of this note is to provide a brief update of the recent developments in Islamic finance. Although the Islamic finance industry continues to grow at impressive speed, this note focuses only on the...

2 Demographic Transition in the Middle East: Implications for Growth, Employment, and Housing

2 Demographic Transition in the Middle East: Implications for Growth, Employment, and Housing »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

The population of the Middle East has grown very rapidly in the past three decades, faster than all regions of the world, except sub-Saharan Africa. 1 Along with this demographic...

3 Determinants of Inflation in the Islamic Republic of Iran—A Macroeconomic Analysis

3 Determinants of Inflation in the Islamic Republic of Iran—A Macroeconomic Analysis »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

This chapter establishes a framework for analyzing the major determinants of inflation in the Islamic Republic of Iran during the period 1989/90–1999/2000. Equilibrium relationships pertaining to the markets...

1 Economic Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa—An Overview

1 Economic Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa—An Overview »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

During the past decade, progress has been made in the Middle East and North Africa to strengthen macroeconomic stability and establish the preconditions for sustained rapid growth. 1...

12 Estimating Trade Protection in Middle Eastern and North African Countries

12 Estimating Trade Protection in Middle Eastern and North African Countries »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

In principle, it is widely accepted that economic distortions need to be addressed with domestic policies rather than with external policies. In practice, however, there are numerous departures from this fun...

9 Exchange Rate Unification, the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate, and the Choice of an Exchange Rate Regime: The Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran

9 Exchange Rate Unification, the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate, and the Choice of an Exchange Rate Regime: The Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

The Islamic Republic of Iran made two major attempts to liberalize its exchange system in the 1990s. First, the number of exchange rates in the official market was reduced from seven to three in 1991, repres...

10 Export Performance and Competitiveness in Arab Countries

10 Export Performance and Competitiveness in Arab Countries »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

During the past two decades, world trade has been growing at an impressive rate, with volume growth averaging about 6 percent in the period 1980–98. This was almost twice as fast as real GDP growth, which av...

7 External Stability Under Alternative Nominal Exchange Rate Anchors: An Application to the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

7 External Stability Under Alternative Nominal Exchange Rate Anchors: An Application to the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries »

Source: Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2001

ISBN: 9781589060418

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, real exchange rate, central bank

The currencies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are effectively pegged to the U.S. dollar (see Appendix A). 1 At the end of 2000, the GCC countries formally agreed...