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APPENDIX 1. Estimating Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in the Baltics in a Cointegration Framework

APPENDIX 1. Estimating Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in the Baltics in a Cointegration Framework »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

This appendix considers the behavior of real effective exchange rates (REERs) in the Baltics over the period 1994–2002. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework that encompa...

The Baltics
			: Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063266.058

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Large current account deficits in Estonia and Latvia, and the continued real appreciation of the exchange rate in Lithuania, have prompted concerns about the competitiveness of the Baltic economies, and called into...

Cash Shortage in the Former Soviet Union

Cash Shortage in the Former Soviet Union »

Source: Cash Shortage in the Former Soviet Union

Volume/Issue: 1994/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1994

ISBN: 9781451848861

Keywords: inflation, monetary union, monetary fund, money supply, monetary authority, European II,

An unexpected shortage of banknotes emerged during 1992 in the former Soviet Union. The cash shortage is explained by the asymmetry in the monetary union that prevailed, under which one member (the Russian Federati...

3. Channels of Spillovers to Neighboring Countries

3. Channels of Spillovers to Neighboring Countries »

Source: The Spillover Effects of Russia's Economic Slowdown on Neighboring Countries

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Ara Stepanyan , Agustin Roitman , Gohar Minasyan , Dragana Ostojic , and Natan Epstein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2015

ISBN: 9781513571348

Keywords: External shocks, Russian Federation, Economic growth, Negative spillovers, Regional shocks, Central Asia and the Caucasus, Central and Eastern Europe, Baltics, Regional trade, Remittances

Trade and remittances are the main channels of outward spillovers from Russia on neighboring countries (see Figure 1). Trade channel is particularly prominent in CIS and Baltic countries, given...

Chapter 2. Assessing Competitiveness

Chapter 2. Assessing Competitiveness »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

This chapter assesses developments in the Baltic countries’ external competitiveness by reviewing a range of standard indicators. These include price-and cost-based measures of the real effective exchange ra...

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Policy Implications

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Policy Implications »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Since 1999, real effective exchange rates in the Baltics have been quite stable compared to the strong real appreciations experienced earlier in the transition process. REER indicators based on measures of r...

Chapter 4. Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates

Chapter 4. Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Whether or not recent movements in real exchange rates are a cause for concern depends on whether they reflect underlying changes in equilibrium exchange rates. This chapter therefore considers a range of fa...

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Concerns about the competitiveness of the Baltic economies have reemerged, as current account deficits have widened in Estonia and Latvia, and the real exchange rate has continued to appreciate in Lithuania....

Chapter 3. Productivity Developments in the Baltics

Chapter 3. Productivity Developments in the Baltics »

Source: The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Productivity is the main determinant of national living standards over the long run—or at least the determinant over which policymakers in most countries have indirect leverage. 18...

Cross-Country Linkages in Europe

Cross-Country Linkages in Europe »

Source: Cross-Country Linkages in Europe : A Global VAR Analysis

Volume/Issue: 2013/194

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yan Sun , Frigyes Heinz , and Giang Ho

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2013

ISBN: 9781484345474

Keywords: Spillover, Global VAR, regional model, macro-financial linkages, emerging Europe, gdp growth, real gdp, inflation, growth rate, long-term interest rates

This paper uses the Global VAR (GVAR) model proposed by Pesaran et al. (2004) to study cross-country linkages among euro area countries, other advanced European countries (including the Nordics, the UK, etc.), and...