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Cash Shortage in the Former Soviet Union

Cash Shortage in the Former Soviet Union »

Source: Cash Shortage in the Former Soviet Union

Volume/Issue: 1994/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1994

ISBN: 9781451848861

Keywords: inflation, monetary union, monetary fund, money supply, monetary authority, European II,

An unexpected shortage of banknotes emerged during 1992 in the former Soviet Union. The cash shortage is explained by the asymmetry in the monetary union that prevailed, under which one member (the Russian Federati...

Central Bank Financial Strength, Transparency, and Policy Credibility

Central Bank Financial Strength, Transparency, and Policy Credibility »

Source: Central Bank Financial Strength, Transparency, and Policy Credibility

Volume/Issue: 2002/137

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Peter Stella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2002

ISBN: 9781451855920

Keywords: Central bank losses, credibility, central bank, inflation, monetary fund, monetary policy

A central bank is financially strong if it possesses resources sufficient to attain its fundamental policy objective(s). Once endowed with those resources, relations between government and central bank should be de...

I Stabilization in the Baltic Countries: Early Experience

I Stabilization in the Baltic Countries: Early Experience »

Source: Road Maps of the Transition : The Baltics, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Michael Marrese , Mark Lutz , Tapio Saavalainen , Vincent Koen , Biswajit Banerjee , and Thomas Krueger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1995

ISBN: 9781557755193

Keywords: inflation, exchange rate, monetary policy, monetary fund, capital inflows

In mid-1992, each of the Baltic countries adopted comprehensive stabilization and reform programs. Economic conditions were very difficult; real output was falling sharply, and prices were soaring. To a larg...

II The Transformation Path in the Czech Republic

II The Transformation Path in the Czech Republic »

Source: Road Maps of the Transition : The Baltics, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Michael Marrese , Mark Lutz , Tapio Saavalainen , Vincent Koen , Biswajit Banerjee , and Thomas Krueger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1995

ISBN: 9781557755193

Keywords: inflation, exchange rate, monetary policy, monetary fund, capital inflows

It is a common perception that among Central and East European countries the Czech Republic has been most successful to date in moving to a market-oriented economy. Macroeconomic developments, especially as...

III Developments and Challenges in Hungary

III Developments and Challenges in Hungary »

Source: Road Maps of the Transition : The Baltics, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Michael Marrese , Mark Lutz , Tapio Saavalainen , Vincent Koen , Biswajit Banerjee , and Thomas Krueger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1995

ISBN: 9781557755193

Keywords: inflation, exchange rate, monetary policy, monetary fund, capital inflows

In contrast to other previously centrally planned countries in Central and Eastern Europe, Hungary has always been distinguished by the “gradualist” approach it has taken toward economic and institutional re...

IMF and the Baltics

IMF and the Baltics »

Source: IMF and the Baltics : A Decade of Cooperation

Volume/Issue: 2003/241

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Adalbert Knöbl , and Richard Haas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

ISBN: 9781451875829

Keywords: currency board, transition to market economy, inflation, monetary fund, central bank, fiscal policy, monetary policy,

The paper is an economic history of the IMF’s involvement in the Baltic states. It describes and analyzes the initial economic stabilization; the period of consolidation and recovery; the effects of the Russ...

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2015 Article IV Consultation with Republic of Estonia

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2015 Article IV Consultation with Republic of Estonia »

Source: Republic of Estonia : 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Informational Annex

Volume/Issue: 2015/336

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2015

ISBN: 9781513524788

Keywords: debt, investment, monetary fund, finances, market

This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that Estonia's economic growth has slowed following the rebound from the deep recession in 2009. Although Estonia's economic and institutional fundamentals are among the...

Russia and the IMF
			: The Political Economy of Macro-Stabilization

Russia and the IMF : The Political Economy of Macro-Stabilization »

Volume/Issue: 1994/20

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Hernández-Catá

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451963939.003

ISBN: 9781451963939

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, central bank, monetary financing, monetary fund, European II Department,

This paper reviews the experience with macroeconomic stabilization in Russia during the 2 1/2 years following the beginning of reforms in January 1992. It focuses on the different perceptions about the nature, the...

The Role of MULTIMOD in the IMF's Policy Analysis

The Role of MULTIMOD in the IMF's Policy Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2000/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Isard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972689.003

ISBN: 9781451972689

Keywords: Economic models, Fund policies, MULTIMOD, macroeconomic policy analysis, monetary policy, exchange rate, international monetary fund, exchange rate regime, government spending

This paper describes the basic structure, underlying philosophy, and key behavioral properties of MULTIMOD. It also focuses on several recent applications of macromodels in the IMF’s policy analysis, emphasi...

Republic of Estonia
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Republic of Estonia : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 1999/74

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 August 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451812398.002

ISBN: 9781451812398

Keywords: monetary fund, economic growth, national income, national income account

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes the progress made by Estonia since independence. It takes stock of the developments in the banking system and describes how the number of banks in Estoni...